ENG Ped

Principles of language teaching :-

There are different approaches for the teaching and learning process of languages such as psychological, Linguistic and pedagogical principles.

Principle of Habit-Formation :-

Language teaching is an art like all other arts, it needs sustained practice and drill so great stress should be laid on practice instead of cramming exercise. The English teacher should be armed at all fronts like cultural. social oral behavioral and conversational approach language habits are formed- 1. Recognition, 2. Imitation, 3. Repetition, 4. Variation, 5. Selection.

Principle of interest :-

In the learning of English as a foreign language the Principle of interest is to be kept in mind by the teacher because the children do not have an innate interest in the learning of this language. English period creates a sort of awe and terror in their hearts which is reduce by unsympathetic teachers. The teacher who cereates interest among his pupils, not only wins over his won difficulties, pupil may come together and work in harmony with full enthusiasm.

Principle of concreteness :-

  It is a psychological fact that children learn more effectively when they can see and handle objects. A child picks up knowledge through various senses, where one sense reinforces the other. It enables the child to understand the vague and abstract part of the knowledge. In this way, audio-visual aids are the greatest modern aids of teaching because they show a concrete thing first and the abstract thing can follow afterwards with ease.

Principle of Accuracy and correctness :-

This principle leads to correct pronunciation, intonation, spelling, structures and accurate or exact logical expression words having similar sounds with their different ordered e.g S “Sh” “Z” may from a regular part of practice. So Accuracy and correctness is the principle which must be followed.

Principle of Motivation :-      

“Motivation is the super highway to learning.” Learning English is a painful process and gives considerable mental strain to the learner. Teachers should try his best to reduce the strain by making use of pictures, models and objects in the classroom. play way method can diminish/remove the dullness and monotony of the classroom. Correlation between lessons must be necessary. Introduction of the chpter should be abruption and interesting. the chapter should be abruption and interesting. The interesting. the inspiration should lead the learner to learn more and more with the zeal of an integral urge.

Need for Learning English Language

Principle of proportion :-

Language is a system. It is an organic whole. Just as the system of our body is composed of the senses of hearing, seeling, heart, lungs and brain etc, so is the system the body are in proper condition. So, and English teacher is expected to devote due time to each of four aspects of

Language study i.e. listening, speaking, reading and writing.

Principle of natural process :-

Mother-tongue is acquired by the children thorough a natural process. This process should be adopted in technical second language be kept in such a child should be an atmosphere which is necessary to learn a foreign language. Teacher should follow these steps :-

  1. Due attention should be paid to pronunciation and accent.
  2. formation of speech habit.
  • Loud reading may be emphasized than silent reading.
  1. Knowledge of words related to daily, life, should be given.
  2. Writing skill should be developed.

Principle of linking with life :-

The process of language teaching should not be cut off from life. It should be a part and parcel of actual life and connected with the way of its living. There is not much difference between the vocabulary used by the pupils in the school and outside the school. English speaking is status symbols. It creates inspiration among the students and they frequently use it in their life situations.

Principle of  purpose :-

People may learn second of third language for different purpose e.g. commercial, easier to design a course suitable for that purpose. But in India, passing the examinations with goods marks is the main purpose of teacher as well as student. But in this process, many basic components are left knowledge is provided. So, purpose should be decided at.

early stage.

Mimicry as the key to language learning :-

People who mimic easily have a great advantage in learning a foreign language. Mimicry is the key to learn a foreign language. it means notice carefully such as the position of lips the quality of the sound the speed of utterance, the intonation of the voice, the best ways of learning the articulation of foreign words.

Mimicry involves three aspects.

  1. Acute and constant observation
  2. Indulge oneself into it
  • Continual practice.

Need for learning English Language in India :-

Learning English is not merely a status symbol today. Many people consider English as the most important and useful language of the world the British Council says English is the main language of books newspaper, airports and air-traffic control, international business and academic conferences, science, technology, diplomacy, sport, international competitions, pop music and advertising.

Over two-thirds of the world’s scientists read in English. Three quarters of the world’s mail is written in English. Eighty per cent of the word’s electronically stored information is in English. of the estimated forty million of the internet, some eighty per cent communicate in.

In countries like India, Where English is a second language, it serves the following five functions :

FUNCTIONS OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE

  1. For formal education (Instrumental Function):
  2. For government administration, and the law, courts (Regulative Function) :
  • For conversation between people speaking different native languages (Communicative Function) :
  1. For commerce, science and technology (Occupational Function); and
  2. For non-technical writings like fiction and political works (Creative Function).

Need for learning English Language :-

The need of learning English in  India is explained under these headings:

  1. English as Link Language
  2. English as Global Language
  • English as Library Language
  1. English a Language of Technology

English as Link Language :-

India has a special place as a nation with a variety of languages. There are 22 regional languages which are given official status. Besides, there are about 400 regional languages and dialects.

People need to travel around the country these days – tourists, businessmen, employees of the Central government, personnel of the armed forces etc. It is not possible for these people to learn all the regional languages.

Hindi is spoken in many provinces. Still there are regions where it is not understood. In such cases, knowing English is helpful for a person in order to converse. In this way English acts as link language between different regions of the nation.

English as Global Language :-

About 37.5 crore people learn English as first language (native language) in countries like the UK, the USA, Canada, Australia etc. In India, Nigeria, Philippines, Germany, France, Pakistan, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, South Africa etc. it is  the second language. According to the British Council, English has official of special status in at least seventy-five countries with total population of  more than 200 crores.

A country cannot develop on its own. It needs trade and commerce with the rest of the world. It needs to build diplomatic relationships with other countries.

There is no language other than English that is widely understood around the world. It is the official language of world’s most important organizations like the United Nations, European Union, Commonwealth of nations, NATO etc. Thus English acts as the language of international trade and commerce, sports culture, tourism, academics and diplomacy.

English as Library Language :-

There are more books available in English than in  any other language of the world. They are on every topic and subject, and for every age and level. They are either original works, or works of tap writers translated into English.

Students of every faculty – arts, science, commerce, engineering, medicine etc. can easily get standard book in English. Even for students of foreign literature, most of the world’s  literature has been translated into English. translation of the holy books of almost every religion  is available in.

English.

English as language of Technology :-

Science, technology and medicine are ever-changing areas. new terms and concepts continuously replace the old. Advanced knowledge of these areas comes to us in English. besides, English is the language most widely used on the internet, our cheapest and fastest source of knowledge.

Conclusion :-

The world has turned into a global village. To carve our places on this village, leering English is necessary. It helps us to communicate not merely within the country, but also outside it. It provides us with vast  knowledge of all the subjects through books. It makes us fast and efficient through use of internet and various appliances.

Learning And Acquisition :-

Language acquisition vs. language learning

There is an important distinction made by linguist between language acquisition and language learning. Children acquire language through a subconscious  process during which they are unaware of grammatical rules. this is similar to the way they acquire their first language. They get a feel for what is and what isn’t correct. In order to acquire language, the learner needs a source of natural communication. The emphasis is on the text of the communication and not on the form. Young student acquire the language to communicate with classmates.

Language learning, on the other hand is the result of direct instruction in the rules of language . and it certainly is not an age appropriate activity for your young learners. in language learning, students have conscious knowledge of the new language and can talk about that knowledge. They can fill in the blanks on a grammar page. Resarch has shown, however that knowing grammar rules does not necessarily result in good speaking or writing. A Student who has memorized the rules of the language may be able to succeed on a standardized test of English language but may not be able to speak or write correctly.

Role of Language in Human Society.

Description of krashen’s theory of second language Acquistion :-

Kranshen’s theory of second language acquisition consists of five main hypotheses :-

  • The Acquisition- Learning hypothesis.
  • The monitor hypothesis.
  • the natural order hypothesis.
  • and the Affective Filter hypothesis.

According to kranshen there are two independent systems language performance: : “the acquired system’ and “the learned system. The acquired system or acquisition is the product of a subconscious process very similar to the process children undergo when they acquire their first language. It requires meaningful interaction in the target language. Natural communication – in which speakers are concentrated not in the form of their utterances, but in the communicative act. the ‘learned system’ or learning is the product of formal instruction and it comprises a conscious process which result in conscious knowledge ‘about’ the language for example knowledge of grammar rules. According to krashen “learning is less important then ‘acquisition’

Theories of language Acquisition :-

The nature vs. nurture debate extends to the topic of language acquisition. Today most researchers acknowledge that bth nature and nurture play a role in language acquisition. However, some researchers emphasize the influences of learning on language acquisition while other.

Receptive Language  before Expressive Language :-

Children’s ability to understand language develops faster than their ability to speak it. Receptive language is the ability to understand language, and expressive language is the ability to use language to communicate. if a mother tells her fifteen-month-old child to put the toy back in the toy chest, he may follow her instructions even though he can’t repeat them himself.

Environmental influences on language Acquisition :-

A major proponent of the ideas that language depends largely on environment was the behaviorist. B.F. Skinner (see  page 145  and 276  for more information on skinner. He believed that language is acquired through principles of conditioning, including, association, imitation and reinforcement.

According to this view, children learn words by associating sounds with  objects, actions and events. They also learn words and syntax by imitating other. Adults enable children to learn words and syntax y reinforcing correct speech. Critics of this idea argue that a behaviorist explanation is inadequate. They maintain several arguments:

  • learning canot account for the repid rate at which children acquire language.
  • There can be an infinite number of sentences in a language. A child may say billy hitted me, incorrectly adding the usual post tense suffix-ed to hit. Errors like these cant’t result form imitation, since adults generally use corrent verb forms.
  • Children acquire language skill even though aduits do not consistently correct their syntax.

Neural Networks :-

Some cognitive neuroscientists have created neural networks, or computer models, that can acquire some aspects of language. These neural networks are not preprogrammed with any rules. Instead, they are exposed to many examples of a language. Using these examples the neural network have been able to learn the language’s statistical and accurately make the past tense forms of verbs. The developers of these networks speculate that children may acquire language in a similar way, through exposure to multiple examples.

Biological Influences on language Acquisition :-

The main proponent of the view that biological influerces bring about language development is the well-known linguist Noam Chomsky. Chomsky argues that human brains have a language acquisition device. (LAD), an innate mechanism or process that allows children to develop language skills. According to this view, all children of all languages. Because of this hard-wired background in grammar, children easily pick up a languge when they are exposed to its particular grammar.

Evidence for an innate human capacity to language skills comes from the following observation :

  • The stages of language development occur at about the same ages in most children ever though different children experience very different environments.
  • Children’s language development follows a similar pattern across cultures.
  • Children generally acquire language skills quicky and effortlessly.
  • Deaf children who have not been exposed to a language may make up their own language. These new language resemble each other  in sentence structure, even when they are created in different cultures.

What is Language :-

Language, like most other aspects  of complex human behavior, is difficult to define. For on things, it is not synonymous with communication. There are many ways to communicate whithout language, although they are often less precise than language. Raising an eyebrow to someone may signal a message. But the message may be vague, unnoticed, or meaningless. And if the eyebrow twitched unintentionally, should a message be read ? and How ? But language prvides us with a set of symbols that can be referenced and defined,  and it gives us a structure, or grammar, for organizing the symbols. Thus the use of language is more intentional, more purposeful, more goal – directed than communication without language. But how do human acquire symbols grammar and meaning ? Let’s start by considering they typical order of language development.

Language Development :- When the child is walk he puts a lot of effort into it, seemingly ignoring verbal communication. But improvement seems to come rapidly in language once walking has become a well- mastered habit.

Must Read : – Characteristics & functions of language Development

The Sequence of Language Development : The emergence of language is surprisingly orderly. Although there is considerable variation in the rate at which children learn speech habits, the sequence is relatively sturdy the table below summarizes the major steps in the acquisition of language.

From birth until about six mount of age an infant produces sounds such as grunts and cries that are genetically organized: these sounds appear to represent states of need, and the child has little or no choice about making them. he or she merely responds to the internal and external environment At  around six mount psychologists believe, children enter the babbling stage. Now many of child’s sounds more nearly resemble parts of adults’ words the child has discarded many sounds not heard in the environment. When a child is about a year old. eager parents detect-often prematurely. Single Words that seem to approximate audits’ words soon some of these utterances are heard more frequently and regularly. when frequency and regularity increases, we can be fairly sure that the child is beginning to attach some meaning to the symbols as with the word mamma.

The Sequence of Emerging Language Behaviors :-

Birth to 6 month :- The infant period the child produces such sounds as grunts as grunts cries. gasps, shrieks, chuckling and cooing at 4 mounth)

6 mouth to 6 months :- the babbling Period The child produces units of utterances called babbling that differ from one situation to another. these units begin to be acoustically similar to adult utterances because the child slough off the irrelevant phonemes rather than acquiring new phonemes.

9 months :- The jargon perios Stresses and intonation patterns in strings of utterance units clearly correspond to those of the adult. some imitation of general language – like patterns can be identified, specific morphemes cannot be distinguished easily by the listener.

9 months to 1 years :- The quiet period The decrease in vocalization during this period of development is interesting. Language habits continue to development between the previous stage and next state, a transition occurs from the use of jargon to use of words at the adult knows them.

1 years to 2 years :- The holophastic stage the child single words to indicate whole phrases. He can use base structure but transformational rules to produce the surface structure have not been acquired. The single words is the start of the child’s vocabulary. pre conventional “words” are considered words by the parent because a given sound pattern is used consistently in similar situations (for example using “muk” for milk.) Than vocalization sound like words and may be considered words by the prideful parents. the child understand much of what he told. He demonstrates his  comprehension by responding in a way that is meaningful to the adult – he way obey a command or pint to an object.

At the end of this period the child produces from 20 word (at about 18 months) to 200 words (at about 21 mounts)

2 years :- The spurt in word development many conventional words appear in the child’s vocabulary, which increases from 300 to 400 words words at (24 to 27) months to 1000 words at 36 months. He produces two-and three-word utterances, phrases, and sentences in which the pivot-open structure is well established.

A given word can be used with a number of intonations. specifically, declarative (“doll.) emphatics(“doll”) and interrogative (doll?)

3 years :-  The sentence period – At 36 to  39 months, the child can use 1000 words, he uses sentence containing grammatical features that anticipate the adult’s use f clearly designate an idea as in the sentences, This one riding horse ” that are grammatically incomplete.

3 to 5 years :-  The child uses sentences of all types : Non understandable sentences, functionally complete but grammatically incomplete sentences, complex sentences and compound – complex sentences.

Problems  of Language Development :-

Children develop language skills through socialization. School is a socializing agency where children learn their language. But all children are not in equal their language ability.

Some children face problem in this regard. The main problems of language development faced by children are presented as follows.

Lack of intial listening and speaking

opportunities.

  • Inability to express through the spoken or written medium:
  • Blocks due to genetic impairment of emotional problems of an impoverished environment.
  • Ambiguites in compreshension such as phonological lexical or deep structural ambiguities, etc.
  • Inadequate cognition of word meanings.
  • over emphasis on writing prematurely.

Implications for Teachers :-

The effective teacher should be aware of the problems faced by students in the classroom. he should create a homely environment in his class where students feel free to express and share their feelings, opinions and viewpoints with their teacher. Such an environment wiil facilated the acquisition of language competency.

  • Language is leered and developed in a social context for functional purposes.
  • for older children, one shuld provide ample scope to develop listening, speaking reading and writing skils.
  • One should be cognizant of multiannual interferences indentify them and provide remedies.
  • One should encourage students creative
  • One de-emphasis excessive writing oir rote repetition, provide a relaxed environment for free expression of ideas, thoughts and feelings provide structural and semi-structural setting to expiree verbal and non-verbal ideas, organize debates, class discussions and displays, etc.
  • One should help students develop early reading habits and enable them to do book reviews.

Characteristics & Function of Language Development :-

It is assumed that every living being has its language but all of them cannot communicate like human beings. the language of human beings has certain characteristics which give a definite meaning to their communication. we can talk about the past, the present and the future with the help of language.

Language development and its usage both verbal and non-verba is universal and central to human existence. Language functions as a means of communication, as a means of reflecting on and reorganizing experience, and as a way to receive and transform the accumulated knowledge and values of the community.

Nature and Characteristics of Language Development:-

The following are the characteristics of language development :

  • Semanticist: the quality of language in which words are used as symbols for objects, events or ideas.
  • Syntax: The rules in a language for placing words in proper order to form meaningful sentences.
  • Productivity: the capacity to combine words into original sentences.
  • Displacement: The quality of language that makes one communicate information about objects and events in another time and place. Language makes possible the efficient transmission of large amounts of complex knowledge from a one person to another, and from one generation to another. Displacement permits parents to warn children of their own mistakes. Displacement allows children to tell their parents what the) did in school.

The Central Role Of Language In Human Society -:

The use of language as the primary means of communication is one of the defining characteristics of the human species. May animal species also use signs of various types to communicate or convey information.

But these sign systems are very simple and inflexible they are very far removed from the complexity and versatility and creativity that goes with human or natural languages. The primary position of language (especially speech) in the life  of mankind is highlighted by the expression ‘talking animal’ that is sometimes used to describe humans.

This central role of communication through natural language in human life is made possible by the fact that all human individuals are able to handle or operate the language (or languages) or their societies.

This is so obvious that we simply take it for granted. but it is useful to note that there is an important principle here. Nearly everyone in any society is a competent and effective language user. This applies to all normal beings. Only that tiny proportion of the population of any country with major physiological handicaps (brain damage. mental retardation. deafness and dumbness) remains unable to use language.

The learning of the mother toque or first language (L1) is a slow and long drawn-out process. it is difficult to say when a person has fully mastered his/her L1 and so ha finished learning it. further many people learn more than one language. This is especially true  of multilingual societies like  ours: and with modern communication braking down national/linguistic boundaries, leaning foreign languages is also becoming increasingly common.

These additional languages are learned slowly (even if there is a crash course) and like the L1, complete mastery is never attained. Thus it is possible to say that for practical purposes. everyone is a language learner.

Teaching of Composition:-

Composition is the expression of thoughts, ideas, feelings, observations, experiences in written form. it refers to the process of collecting thoughts or information, arranging them in a sequence and expressing them in accordance with recognized standards of form.

An essay, a story a letter, a poem a description etc are some of the forms of composition. Proper organization, Clarity and effectiveness of the subject matter are some of the important points to be kept in mind while writing composition.

Aims of Teaching Composition :-

Genera Aims

  • To encourage the students to express their ideas in an organized and systematic way.
  • To enable them to develop their skill of writing.
  • To enable them to use appropriate vocabulary in writing various from of composition.
  • To enable them for logical presentation of facts and ideas.
  • To develop their communicative competence.

Types f composition and their teaching :-

There are two types of composition :-

  • Oral composition
  • Written composition

They are further divided as :

  • Guided oral composition (i) Guided written composition.

Teaching of Written Composition :-

Guided written Composition is usually introduced at the early stage. The teacher guides the student to write with the help of controlled vocabulary and structures. t lays the foundations for writing free composition, guided written composition, can be done by using the following methods :

  • By giving dictation
  • By giving certain words and asking the students to make the sentences using those words.
  • By giving substitution table to make various sentences.
  • Writing description of an object or a picture with the help of key words.
  • By asking to complete the story or a paragraph by filling the gaps.
  • By giving few sentences form text book and ask them to write parallel sentences.
  • By reproducing the gist of story.
  • By reproducing the description of the picture.
  • Expansion of a topic on the basis of the given outlines.

Free written composition should be introduced at the later stage. In free composition, there is no restriction on the students regarding use of vocabulary, structures and the length of composition etc. Students are free to tackle the topic on their own freely.  they are encouraged to think freely and express themselves freely. They are encouraged to think freely and express themselves freely.

Types of free composition

There are five types of free composition :

  • Narrative composition

It involves description of an event like visit to the zoo, a journey by train etc. Before making them writing the narrative composition on a given topic, the teacher may refresh their memory by discussing the event or the incident and ask them to write on their own in their own words.

(ii)            Story type composition

The teacher can present a picture or series of picture before the student and ask them to write the story. or Teacher may give certain hints and some sentences and ask them to  develop the story.

(iii)           Reflective composition

                 It includes essay writing, letter writing application etc.

  • Essay writing : At the early stage, teacher should give easy topics for essay writing but at the higher stage, students can be given all types of topics to write in their own style. They should be made clear about the parts of the essay i.e. introduction, main body and conclusion.

(iv) Imaginative composition

The teacher can give some imaginary situation or topic to the students to write on it using their own imagination. For example : if I were a principal when I trapped in a road jam.

    (v)  Literary composition

Literary composition includes abstract writing and explanation writing.

TEACHING OF GRAMMAR  

Coleridge defined poetry as, The best words in their best order. Poetry embodies the beauty of form, beauty of thought and beauty of feelings.

  1. Allen Poe calls poetry, “The rhythmical creation of thought”

Poetry has tremendous appeal for children and it is the best way of exciting their love of the language. It lays the foundation for the appreciation of the beauty of language. It educates their emotions and enhances their power of imagination The rhythm of poetry helps the students to acquire natural speech rhythm.

According to Prof. S. Subrahamanyam, “Ppetry leads an all round development of the whole personality of the pupils particularly the emotional the imaginative, intellectual aesthetic and intuitive sides”

  1. General Aims
  • To enable the students to recite the poem with proper rhythm and intonation.
  • To enable the students to enjoy the recitation the poem.
  • To develop the student’s power of imagination.
  • To train the emotions of the students
  • To develop love for poetry reading and writing.

At secondary/Higher Secondary Level

  • To enable the students to appreciate the poem.
  • to enable them to understand the thought and imagination contained in the poem.
  • To appreciate the rhyme & rhythm and style of the poem.
  • To train the emotions, feelings and imagination of the students.
  • To develop their aesthetic sense.
  • To create love for English poetry.
  1. Specific Aims

The specific aims of teaching poetry differ form poem to poem. The depend largely on situation, scene, feeling and thought depicted in the poem. The specific aims of teaching English poetry are as follows :

  • To enable the students to recite the poem namely …………with proper rhyme and rhythm.
  • to enable the students to enjoy the recitation of the poem………
  • To understand the central idea of the poem.
  • To communicate the exclusive message of the poem to the students.
  • To enable them to appreciate the beauty and image depicted in the poem.

Procedure of Poetry Teaching

Procedure of poetry teaching involves the following steps :

  • Preparation
  • Presentation
  • Comprehension/Appreciation
  • Home Assignment

Teaching of Prose

The word prose has been devied from the latin word, ‘Prosa’ Proversa Oration that means straight forward discourse prose is a powerful medium of expressing ideas, facts laws and principles. Therefore it appeals to head of mind The main aim of teaching prose is to enlarge the vocabulary, explain the structure of sentences and grasp the ideas of the author.

General Aims

  • To enable the student to read aloud prose lessons with correct pronunciation stress

Intonation and pause.

  • To enable the students to comprehend the thought and ideasa contained in the passage.
  • to enrich their active and passive vocabulary.
  • to enable the students to express the ideas contained in the passage orally and in writing.
  • To develop their interest for reading.
  • To enable them to write correctly.
  • To build their character and prepare for world citizenship.

Specific Aims

The Specific aims vary according to the subject matter of the prose lessons. The specific aims of different types of prose lessons are:

  • Descriptive :

To develop the student’s imagination and love for natural objects.

To acquaint the students with the writer’s style.

  • Story

To give certain facts and lessons through the story.

To shape the student’s character.

To develop interest for story reading.

  • Essay

To acquint them with the style of essay writing.

To enable them to arrange the ideas in a systematic way.

  • Play

To make them speak conversational English.

To encourage the students to play different roles.

To build their character.

  • Biography

To get students acquainted with the life and deeds of great men.

To inculcate in them desirable sentiments and ambitions.

To show them the path of character building.

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Presentation

Presentation is the main part of the lesson plan. The lesson may be divided into two more units. The following sub-steps are followed in each unit.

  1. Reading Aloud by the Teacher.

Reading aloud by the teacher is called model reading. The teacher reads aloud the selected passage with proper pronunciation , stress, intonation and pause. the speed of reading should be normal and audible to the entrie class. He should keep an eye on the class while reading allud to see whether the students are following the reading in their text books.

  1. Pronunciation drill should precede reading aloud. the words should be selected on the basis of the pronunciateion skills of the class. the selected words should be written on the blackboard one by one and practiced.

Difficult to pronounce by the student

Commonly mispronounced by the students.

Containing the silent latter.

III. Reading aloud by the students

The teacher asks some students to read the passage aloud one by one. Loud reading by the student is also called imitation reading as they try to imitate the teacher’s pronunciation, pause and intonation.

IV Exposition of new words/phrases

The teacher selects the new words and phrases from the passage and explains their meanings. The teacher can adopt different methods for explaining the meanings.

  • By showing the object, model, picture or chart.
  • By using the word in sentence.
  • By giving synonym/antonym.
  • By drawing a sketch or figure on the blackboard.
  • By showing action or gesture
  • By translating the word in mother tongue.

Silent Reading

After exposition of new words/phrases, the teacher asks the students to read the passage silently. This helps rapid reading, learing of new words and quick grasp of meaning. The teacher should supervise the class while students are reading. Adequate time should be given to complete the reading of the passage.

Teaching of Grammar

Grammar is the study of organization of words into sentences which is based on certain rules, According to proof. Nelson Francis, “Grammar is the set of formal patterns in which the words of a language are arranged in order to convey meanings.

It gives th pupils ability to speak and formal language patterns properly for describing a thing. “The acquisition of the grammatical system of a language remains the most important element in language.

Aims of  Teaching of Grammar

The aims of teaching grammar are as follows:

  • To develop students insight into the structures of English language.
  • To enable the students to develop their understanding about the

           rules of English Grammar through use and practice.

  • To enable the students to assimilate the correct patterns of the language without rote memorization.
  • To enable the students to speak and write correctly.
  • To develop a scientific attitude towards the language.

Methods of Teaching Grammar

There are four main methods of teaching grammar :

  • The traditional method
  • The informal method
  • The reference or correlation method
  • The inductive-deductive method

The Traditional method

In this method grammatical items are taught with the help of a grammar book which contains definitions, rules examples and exercises. For example:

Definition of Noun: “A noun is the name of a person place or things.

Examples : Sachin, seema, delhi. Knapur, Book, Chair etc.

Exercise : Underline the nouns in the following sentences.

Rajesh lives in delhi. My father gave me pen.

The main Procedure in this method is from rule to example. It emphasizes on rote learning of rules and definitions. Students find it least interesting and monotonous.

The informal Method

This Method advocates the teaching of grammar not by rules but by usages. By continuous practice of using words while speaking, reading and writing grammar can be learn. this method proves useful at the  early stage when students learn language by lot or oral work. Method demands a lot of practice and time form learning the grammatical items on the part of the students. The students do not get systematized knowledge of grammar.

The reference of correlation method

This method is also called incidentl method as grammar is taught incidentally in this method. Grammar is taught while teaching the text book lesson or a composition the sentence patterns, structures etc that are used in the text book lesson or composition are taught during teaching of the lesson. for example.

While teaching the particular lesson, the teacher instructs the Students to note all the examples of the present tense and past tense separately. After noting the different sentences of present tense and pat tense, the grammatical rules are discussed in the class. This method lays stress on the application of the rules and their usage. it is not considered a complete method as grammatical items are taught only incidentally. It can interfere with the normal teaching.

The inductive and deductive Method

This method is considered to be the method as it follows certain educational principles from known to unknown, from simple to complex from general to particular, from concrete to abstract etc.

Inductive  means to proceed from observation to laws and rules.

Deductive means to proceed from the law and rule to observation and examples. This Method has two processes.

  • Inductive Process
  • Deductive Process

for teaching grammar inductively and deductively following steps are to be followed :

Inductive Process

  • Presentation of examples in a systematic way.

In the first step, the teacher presents the examples of the grammatical item to be taught in a systematic way.

  • observation and analysis of examples.

The teacher asks the students to observe the examples and analyze them with the help of students.

  • Generalization/Generation of rule of definition

After analysis of the examples they come to certain conclusions or generalization and draw certain rule or definition.

Psychological Problems :-

It is a widerpread misunderstanding amongst students that  English the most difficult of all subjects. The result and the filure candidates act as evidence to prove this fact. Hence most of the students look at this subject with a prejudiced vision and bear the fear through the year. The psychological depression results in poor performance at the end of the year.

Problem of Concretizing the abstract idea :-

The teacher faces a serious problem of concretizing the abstractness of the novel, poem, passage, words etc. they face difficulty in creating live pictures. The students find it difficult to understand the abstract idea and so they are unable to comprehend the lectures given by their teachers in English. If a poem on sadness is going on in the class the teacher  should teach it so effectively that the students get tears in their eyes. This type of experience is hardly found in classroom teaching at present. In fact the teacher is always in a hurry to complete the portion and feels that it is waste of time to arouse emotions and interact with the students.

Translation method. Translation method is widely used in rural area. It helps the learner to understand the content of the text but bars from learing the language. The main purpose of teaching the language is kept aside and the teaching of content and them is given importance. Translation method is thus a great problem in learning English.

Mother tongue Interference:-

Most of the problems arise due to the interference of mother tongue in speaking English. Both the teacher and the students are very fluent in talking their own mother-tongue. But they forget the essence of pure language. when they speak in their mother-tongue they sometimes use English words in the midst of the sentences. They forget that every language differs in stress, intonation and pronunciation.

Difference in English :-

English is pronounced in a very different way from almost all other languages of the world. Every region of the world where English is spoken has a different accent. when you are teaching English as second language, you must bear in mind that your students will not know the difference between US English, Queen’s English and the entire sundry English’s of the world. this could lead to confusions.

Lack of practice :- Language could be mastered by practicing all the four skills viz. Listening, speaking, Reading, Writing, The rural surrounding does not allow the learner to practice any of these skills. The lack of audio tools also adds in the problem of lack of practice. Many teachers are unable to teach English effectively because they face lot of problems due to the lack of teaching aids. There are very few audio-visual aids available and it is insufficient for the teachers to use it effectively. some are so costly that the college can only afford to buy few.

Lack of Interest :- Learning English being complied has merely become a hurdle in passing. students only concentrate on passing marks. They do not care for learning the language as a tool of communication . Teacher and the taught both loolk at this subject as an unavoidable hurdle and try their level best to cross this hurdle any how.

Lack of motivation :-

In learning as second or a foreign language, motivation is the crucial force which determines whether the learner embarks on a task at all how much energy he devotes to it and how long  he perseveres. It is know a complex phenomenon and includes many components, such as, the individual’s drive need for achievement and success, curiosity, desire for stimulation and new experience, and so no.

Mistakes in English :-

Most of the mistakes are made unknowingly i.e. when making a mistake.

Becomes habitual, we keep making the the sam mistake even without realizing it. If we study this problem in a scientific manner by trying to know what is the actual cause behind making the mistake we would be able to avoid it.

Crowded  Classed :-

The size of the classes everywhere is considerably large and thus student’s participation in the class work in quite impossible. The ratio of students in relation to teachers is not proportional. This is one of the reasons why individual attention is not possible to the students . for individual attention, there is a provision of tutorial classes but the number of students in Tutorials is also very large, because mist of the college can afford neither so many rooms for this Purpose nor so many teachers to conduct effective teaching of English. It should purpose nor so many teachers to conduct effective teaching of English. it should also be recognized that the practical work in the teaching of English demands that the number of students in the class be limited.

Solutions or remedies of teaching English s a Second Language :-

Building a rapport with your class :- when you enter the class for the first time it is very important that you give a welcoming smile to your students and greet them. Your assuring smile and greeting them in a famililar manner helps them bond. Your assuring smile and greeting them in a familiar manner helps  them bound with you instantlty when the bond with you, they will find learning the language easier. remember a simile always welcomes people to interact with you.

Place of English should be defined :-

English offers vast opportunities to all. The policy regarding the place or English in our education. system should be well defined. this should be determined keeping in view its use and vast opportunities in the field of science, technology, social science, philosophy, area studies, journalism, international trade and diplomacy.

Applying Different methods of Teaching :-

The teacher while teaching English should use the different methods of teaching English to the students. the teacher can also make use of the language lab. some of the methods of teaching English are as follows :

  • Grammar-Translation Method
  • Direct method
  • Bilingual method
  • The Structural method
  • The Communicative method
  • Situational method

Use of appropriate method for teaching various topics accordingly helps to enhance the effect of teaching language.

Building Confidence Among Students :-

At the first meeting itself train your students to ask some simple English question and give their answer  examples are what is your name ? Which country are you form ? who is your best friend ? etc many teacher of English as a second language make the mistake of beginning with the alphabet. This is wrong when you train them to ask question on the first day itself, your students will definitely show off these questions to their folks. And their interest in the language will be built. They will come with higher hopes of learning more things the next day. the teacher should emphasize more on the language learning skills than the portion completing at the undergraduate level.

Keeping In mind aims of Teaching English :-

The teacher should always emphasize on the aims of teaching English. It will help to teach effectively. These aims are:

  • To enable the students to understand English when spoken
  • To enable the students to speak in English
  • To enable the students to road English.
  • To enable the students to write in English.

These are the primary aims of teaching English instead of enabling the student pass in the upper class.

Improvement in Teaching Facilities  :-

Special efforts should be made ensure that teacher get proper teaching facilities, including space, books teaching aids. The school and the college libraries should subscribe good journals which may enable them to know the latest developments  in the field of linguistics and English language teaching.

Make students think in English :-

Make it a very firm rule but subtly implied that there will be no other language spoken in your class other than English Exhort them  to think in English this a mammoth task, and can be achieved only after some weeks or probably months of teaching.

End the Socio-Psychological Problems :-

Many think English as the most difficult language and many call it unnecessary to learn it. The efforts of the teacher should be in eradication the Socio- Psychological Problems of the students, by motivating them and giving them some responsibility.

Building communication skills :-

Never teach your student always speak with them. Converse with the students about day-to-day things. keep talking with them in wimple English. they will talk when the initial icebreakers are done with and when they will talk, they will  learn. Encourage your students to talk. As long as the students attempts to talk in English make it a point to listen.

Handling mistakes with Card – Mistakes will happen in the class and you have to learn how to handle them deftly. If you laugh at the student they will be too embarrassed to make any further attempts at speaking the language. If you do not laugh student will feel you are only being too kind to them and might always think they have said something wrong but you are hiding amusement :

Conclusions :-

Teaching English as second language is really a fun if you do it the right sporting way. you have to make it fun your students too that’s the way they will learn better.

Use of Language games in language Teaching :-

Children love playing games and performing activities. They seek fun and enjoyment while playing any game and performing any joyful activity. of  language is a language game. language games are based on play-way method of leaning.

Learners feel that they are playing a game. At the same time they do acquire language ability consciously or unconsciously.

Advantages of language Games

  • They help to motivate children and sustain their interest.
  • They give variety to the day to day teaching.
  • They develop their power of observation and imagination.
  • Language games throw challenges which they take up joyfully.
  • They help to create contexts in which language can by practiced usefully and meaningfully without any stress.
  • They suit various levels of the students.
  • They ensure maximum participation of student and give opportunities for cooperation interactions and healthy completion.
  • They create pleasing classroom atmosphere to acquire language abilities.

Types of language Games

There are mainly three types of games :

  • Listening/ Speaking
  • Reading/ Writing
  • Vocabulary/ Grammar

Any games can be oral/written depending on the level of the learner and the objectives of the lesson.

  • Identification Games :
  • Presenting an object and describing it or describing an object and asking to identify it.
  • Asking about any hidden object or item.
  • To select a picture on the given description.
  • Reciting a poem or telling a story.
  • Spelling Games

Spelling games are useful for learning the spelling of different words. They are

  • The teacher writes a word on the blackboard and asks the students one by one to speak a word beginning with the last letter of the word e.g.

Fan – nest-time-ear-rat & so on.

  • The teacher writes a word on the blackboard and instructs the student one by one to make different words using the different letter of that particular word e.g. ‘forehead’ ear, red, head, hear, roar, etc.
  • The teacher gives jumbled letters or words to arrange them in a order to form the particular word or sentence. he can write a word missing certain letters and ask he student to fill up the missing letters.

Vocabulary Games

  1. Student are directed to construct different words using prefix or suffix to the root words.
  2. Change one letter in the given words and wirte three other words/objects for example Plate
  3. Write the names of animals/things hidden below: as ‘cat’ is hidden in cattle,

Sentence/Structure game

  1. The teacher writes some action words on the blackboard asks the students to use in sentences. He can ask them to make as many sentences as they can by replacing the action words.
  2. The teacher can give a particular structure and ask them to make the same structure by replacing the noun/pronoun/verb etc.

There are so many other games which an English teacher can innovate according to the learning age and level size of the class and availability of time and materials to make English language learning joyful.

Evaluation of language skills :-

The teacher shows the class a large picture depicting some scenes of which are statements about it. some of which are correct and some are incorrect. They give answer according to the subject matter what they listen before.

Evaluation of Speaking skill oral Tests

Oral tests must form an essential part of evaluation of spoken skill of the students. In the beginning, tests should be mostly oral, written tests can be introduced only at a stage. oral test must not be ignored at least in the measurement and evaluation of spoken English skill.

Oral tests are the best means of improving the pronunciation of the student and measuring their oral expression. They not only keep the student alert and attentive but also stimulate their mental activity.

Short question should be put on familiar objects and topics taught in the class during the session and the students should be asked to give their answer orally.

Teaching of Language skills Writing skill :-

Speech come to man as a gift from nature. oral work is the back bone of language teaching. oral work supplies material for written work. fair and legible handwriting makes a man perfect.

Teaching Mechanics of Writing :

  1. Controlling the small muscles of the fingers and wrist.
  2. Securing Co-ordination of the hand and the eye write betters of the correct shape and size.
  3. Giving proper spacing between letters, words and line.
  4. Using capital letters where required and putting punctuation marks.

Forms of Writings :-

Earlier form (Picture writing)

The earlier kind of writing was ‘picture writing. it was not easy. it presented difficulties because everything, a person cannot recond in pictures.  it was difficult to learn and road because thousands of object and ideas needed different sign to express.

The script of the Chinese language is based upon picture scipt and one has to learn hundred of symbols in order to understand spark, road and write this language.

The Alphabetic From –

In this form, each letter or symbol represents a different sound. It was first used by the Phoenicians of the Romans coupled this method and the present script of writing of English is also called ‘Roman script’

So, the linguistic activities may be compared to the four pillars supporting the magnificent structure of language. Writing is just like Pasting and plastering. The teacher like a conscientious artist, places not only bricks and mortar and other material required for his fine creation, but also paste and plasters it and givers it a finishing touch.

Essentials of Teaching writing

The choice of script :- Script is the written of strokes, circles, dots etc.These scripts are of your kind.

  • Print Script – In this type, the letters appears in words which are not joined to gather. The common practice in teaching writing is to start with print script. It is the simple form of writing. It is straight and clear in shapes of letters, and it is not confusing in anyway.
  • Cursive writing – In this type, the letters are joined together with strokes or loops. This is the running type of writing. Cursive script is useful because It makes writing fluent and facile, developed speed.

Marion Richardseon Script – In this type, all the letters are not joined together this script is also called rounded cursive. The basis of this type of writing is a system of rhythmic Patters movements. this script found wide favor with the teachers all over the world. it is infect, a development of print script with certain requirements of cursive script.

  1. Italic – This kind of writing was used in Italian manuscript in the middle Ages. it is a kind of cursive script but more pointed. Though it can be written very quickly, yet its major drawback is its difficult to read. At early stage, it is not very much encourage.
  2. Choice of style – Another essential of good writing is the choice of proper style. There are two types of

Types of Reading :-

Reading means to understand the meaning of printed words that is written symbols. It implies reading with comprehension.

William S. Gray in his book “History and Philosophy of reading Instructions has defined reading thus – ” Reading is the process of recognizing printed and written symbols, involving such habits as accuracy in recognizing the words that make up a passage span of recognition, rate at which words and phrases are recognized, rhythmical progress of perception along the lines and accurate return sweep of the eye from the end of one line to the beginning of the next.”

There are different types of reading which lead to comprehension.

  1. land reading
  2. Silent Reading
  3. Oral Reading
  4. Intensive Reading
  5. Extensive Reading
  6. Skimming
  7. Scanning
  8. Supplementary reading
  9. Library Reading

Oral Reading :-

Oreal reading means reading aloud. In the early stages children are taught the mechanics of reading. (the sounds of a language that are significant for meaning, the force with of which syllables are said the rise and fall in pitch level, words forming sense groups that are said at one go without a pause.) It is necessary to ensure that the pupil correctly assocate the spoken word with the printed symbols.  Its obvious use is that it provides Practce in good speech to the learners and affords the teacher an opportunity to find out whether the student is reading with correct pronunciation or not.

In addition to pronunciation, oral reading helps the child in :

  1. Recognizing quickly the oral counter parts of the printed symbols.
  2. Recognizing meaningful units.
  3. becoming better readers ultimately because oral reading is as stepping stone to success in silent reading.

Silent Reading :

Along with the ability to read aloud, should be introduced to the skill of silent reading. Reading in actual life is mostly silent reading. The Purpose of silent reading is to enable the learners to comprehend the meaning of what they read with speed. The speed in silent reading is more than in  reading aloud as here students have not to concentrate on pronunciation. The teacher should ensure that the students don’t move their lips when they read silently. it retards the speed of reading after the student have read a passage silently, appropriate questions should be put to them to text their comprehension. In Shout it can be said that –

  1. Silent reading is a complex set of skills.
  2. It is more than recognizing and understanding isolated words. it requires one to think, feel and imagein.
  3. While one reads silently, his eyes do not sweep across the line of print smoothly and steadily but move in jerks from one point to another.
  4. The defects at the physical level can be remedied by repeated instruction and careful supervision.
  5. Silent reading helps to consolidate different skills acquired in that language eg. vocabulary, spelling, pronunciation, meaning, structure, punctuation etc.
  6. The earlier we train our learners to read silently the better it is. As soon as the learners gain some background of the basic structure of the language we should start giving them practice in silent reading.

Extensive Reading :-

In practical life a person does not road intensively i.e. paying close attention to every details unless he has a special reason for it. Unike intensive reading, the main purpose here is not to concentrate on study of the language but to concentrate on subject matter. so extensive reading means a non-detailed study of the text or book. It is this type of reading that a student or an adult needs in his day to day life like reading a newspaper, an article, a fiction or a non-fiction etc. it is not necessary to read these things in minute details. All that a person is concerned  with is to know the main points So expensive reading aims at training in “reading for information”. supplementary reader prescribed in school syllabus is meant for extensive reading.

Both extensive and intensive reading re important Intensive reading enriches the student command of language and extensive reading further reinforces it.

The chief differences in teaching intensive and extensive reading are :

  1. In intensive reading there is model reading by the teacher and reading aloud by the students. In extensive reading, neither model reading by the teacher nor reading aloud by the student is done.
  2. In intensive reading the meaning of new words in explained but it is generally not done in extensive reading students can give the meaning from the context or they have already leant these words intensive reading.
  3. No grammatical work is done in extensive reading this is similar to extensive reading but its chief aim is to supplement the intensive reading of a detailed prose-lesson.

Listening Skill

Listening   and speaking skills are  the two sides of the same coin. in the act of communication, they are complementary, to each other and therefore,both should be practiced in close relation to each other. oral speech is acguired  through constant practice. speech, rhythm’ pronunciation   etc. are learnt by listening  to appropriate language models. if we want our learmers to learn to speak well, we have to give prominence to the development of listening skills as well. storytelling’ interviews and conversation  etc. are activities which provide ample opportunities to the  students for listening. taped material can also be used to enhance this skill.

how to promote listening skill?

some activities/ techniques for developing lisening skill can be as following.

  1. the  teacher can read out a passage, a list of words etc. and ask them to identify  the number of times a specific word or a grammatical category occurs.
  2. listen and draw. the learners will draw different shapes etc.(according to the instructions given by the teacher).
  3. timetables, bio-data formsm, etc. can all be used as grids. A text can be read out and the details filled in.
  4. flow charts can also be used as a task sheet for a listening activity.
  5. using maps- maps can also be used as task sheets in these listening activities. they can be used to mark:

follow up work-

a follow up task is a must after a listening activity focusing on structures remedial practice or doing an oral or written  task related to the activity.

the role of the teacher in an oral lesson is very important. the teacher acts  as a motivator. his personality, competence and confidence, his ability  to create interest in students play a vital role in developing the listening and speakin skills in them.

. teaching of reading skill

English speech sounds-

we speak in order to be heard. we cannot call any sound a speech sound. the sounds produced by the speech organs are known as speech sounds. they can be classified. in to vowels and consonants.

 there are 20 vowel sounds  in English language.(12 pure vowels and 8 diphthongs)  a  vowel  may be difined as a voiced sound in the productin of which  there is no obstruction. partial or complete of the air passage.  English has twelve and eight  diphthongs.

 A consonant mayb be defined as a sound in the  production of which  the air from the luge is obstructed as  a results of a narrow or complete closure of the air passage. engilsh has twenty four consonant  sounds.

speaking skill-

“speech is the ground  work, all the are buit upon it. through speech, the pupils learn  to make the direct connections between  the English words  or phrase and  the subject, action and idea it bears. he learns the habit of using words in the correct sentence pattern and phrase patterns and he can learns this in no other way”.-F.C.french

 it is true to say that the faculty of speech is a natural  gift, we get it polished and improved through education in our schools providing various  opportunities  for its natural development. an English  teacher should be very careful to his own  pronunciation for lying down the correct speech habits of  his students.

Aim  fo teaching of speaking-

.cultivation of audible  and intelligible pronunciation.

. production of correct sounds, stress, intonation, rhythm, fluency and pause.

. cultivaton of the  habit of speaking long sentences.

.Developing good speech manner.

.Exprssing ideas, thoughts and feellings  of others.

. understanding ideas, thoughts and emotional feelings of others.

 How to promote speaking skill?

suggested  activities to promote speaking  skill:

the goal of any speaking activity is developing communicative  ability of  the learners.this means  that the language system has to be internalized activities usually focus  directly on the different  aspects of language.

  1. Eliciting

presentation of  a lesson will eliciting questions helps students remember words  and structures and gives them practice right then and there when the word is introduced. care should be taken  while  framing questions . they should be framed in an unambiguous  way so that the learners may answer easily.

  1. Discussion activities –

these types of activities act  as initators. they may be in the form of pictures. the  students may be asked  to describe the pictures.

  1. find the difference-

this activity leads to purposeful question and answer  exchanges. the vocabulary used is specific. help can be provided initially.

  1. Role play-

role play enables the students to imagine, act and speak accordingly. they bring the situations from real life into  the classroom. roles should be selected beforehand if reguired clued be provided to the learners. everyday life situations such as shopping, holidays, camps, folktales etc.can be used roles such as friends, brothers,sisters,  shopkeepers, charcters from  the textbook can be taken up.

  1. Games-

games help the teacher to create contexts in which the language is used contextually and meaningfully. games ar task-based and have a purpose beyond the production of speech, serve as excellent  communicative activities. games are learner centread; they integrate.

  1. pronunciation drills-

language learning  is a process of habit formation. it is important, that enough practice in sentence patterns  is provided to the learner. they help the learner to improve his pronunciation, to speak with proper stress and intonation to grasp the basic patterns and vocabulary, and to speak fluently.

minimal pairs help the learners to practice the sounds which create problems for them. example.

  1. Reading aloud-

reading aloud provides  practice  to the pupils to read with correct pronunciation. the mispronounced words can also be corrected. initially  the learners should not be asked to read  anyting which they have not mastered orally. the teacher should, therefore help the learners  with the pronunciation of new words  and patterns which they will come across in their  reading. the teacher may ask the learners to repeat  after him/her. the teacher should  ensure that the leaners should not be exposed to bad pronunciation.

  1. Recitation of poem:

poetry  has  tremendous appeal for chidren and it helps to arouse the interest of the learners. it has a speial appeal for the aesthetic and  intuitive sides of the child’s personality.

 poetry inparts pleasure   to the students. it helps to learn to appreciate poetry. the rhythm of poetry helps the learner to acquire natural speech, rhythm etc. when poetry is read with proper stress and rhythm,  the learners  receive training in speech and pronunciation.

 the teacher should read  the poem with pronunciation, proer stress rhythm. poetry is an art of the  ear, not of the eye- in other words, poetry is sound not sight. the best way to teach is to read it well. reading helps the learners to understand and enjoy the poem.

Situational approach of English teaching-

the real and true meanings of words are known by the situation in which they are used by the speaker or the  writer. so correct comprehension of the situation is very essential in order to pick up the desired meaning of particular  structure. in situational approach, the foreign  language should be taught by forming links between the new language items and real situations in the class room.

 English teacher  tries to create a life- like classroom situation to teach new words and sentence pattern of language  items.

 the integrated approach  of English teaching. the  terms”integrated approach’ was introduced in  the national curriculum framework, 2005 of NCERT. it is a relatively  new term and there is much to be done in developing  this approach. there are basically two approaches  widely used in teaching  English in India. the first is the structural approach. it is widely used in textbooks of many states. the other approach is  the communicative approach. it is loosely used in the  institutes providing crash course in “spoken English”

     the structural approach and the communicative approach are wide apart  in terms  of competencies they develop. it  is widely believed that the students in  the structural  approach lack fluency in speaking English in real life situations. on  the other hand,  students who are tutored using the communicative  approach are fluent speakers. but what they gain in fluency, they lose in accuracy.

the integrated approach is presented as  a bridge the gap between the two. the approach lays equal stress in all the basic skills  of the language. also, it advocates  that these skills should be  provided in holistic situations, instead of linear and additive manner. in several  communicative situations, such as taking notes while listening to somebody on the phone, several skills may need to be used together.

 the communicative approach

the  communicative approach is the recent and latest approach of teaching English. it enables the students to communicate his ideas in a better way. he socio-linguists  dell  Hymes  propagates this approach.

 trim, David and Henny  has  developed this approach national  functionalism  and the communicative approach.

Bilingual  method –

billngual  method  is a recently developed  and invented by prof. Dodson of wales. billngual method  means  a method  in which two languages i.e. the  language  to be learnt  and mother tongue are used. in translation  method , the  some two  languages are used. but there is great  difference  between these two methods. it is a unique method which  is a midway  the word’ biligual’ applies to a person  who knows two  languages-  the mother tongue  and the foreign  or second language. in bilingual  method, the emphasis is on pattern  practice.  mother tongue is only used  to make the meaning of English words. mother  tongue has restricted use in bilingual method.

principles  of bilingual method

 . the meanings of words  and phrases /sentences in a foreign  language  can be made clear by the use of  mother tongue.

.   there is no need to create situations for making the meaning of English words and sentences.

.bilingual method is  the improvement and combination  of transiation method and direct method.

characteristics of bilingual method

 .sentences’ is the unit of teaching.

 . it emphasizes on creating situation.

 .  mother tongue is used when it is necessary to explain the difficult area of language.

.regorous practice is done in sentence.

.rules of grammar are not taught separately as is done in grammar transiation method.  the direct method

 in the 19th century , reformers began experimenting on the ways a child learns a language naturally. in a natural  sep up, a child does not need  grammar  to learn  the mother tongue.  language comes to the child through listening, then speaking and  afterwards reading  and writing. these observations  led to the claim that a foreign language could also be taught without teaching grammar or using mother tongue.

 German scholar f. Franke  (1884) believed that a language can be best taught by using it actively in the classroom. instead of explaining rules of grammar, teachers must  encourage direct and natural use of the language . the teacher replaces the textbook in vocabulary is  taught using  known words, pictures, demonstration  and mime. thus  natural  learning principles provide the foundation of the direct method, also  known as the natural method.

 

Methods of Teaching English

 

  •      Origin of the word Method –

Methods ”kCn ysfVu Hkk’kk ds  Methodus ¼”kCn ls mRiUu gqvk rFkk Greek Hkk’kk esa 1375&1425 ds e/; Methodos  ”kCn dk iz;ksx ekuk x;k gSA

  •     Meaning of Method (Method  “kCn dk vFkZ ) –

Method = Selection – Gradation – Presentation – Repetition

  1. Selection ¼pquko½ – What and how much ¼D;k vkSj fdruk½
  2. Gradation – In order in which taught ¼og Øe ftlesa v/;;u djok;k tk;sxk½
  3. Presentation – The way in which taught ¼og jkLrk ftlds vk/kkj ij v/;kiu djok;k tk;sxk½
  4. Repetition – The way of repetition ¼iqukZo`fRr dk rjhdk½

Method is a definite, logical and systematic way to teach foreign language.

  • Types of Methods –

Methods  dks le; ds vk/kkj ij nks oxksZ esa foHkkftr fd;k x;k gS&

                            Methods

Old Methods                                                              New Methods

  1. Translation cum grammar Method        Dr. west’
  2. Direct Method                                         Substitutional method
  3.   Bilingual method
  4. Translation cum Grammar Method-

(a)       Other name of Translation cum grammar method ¼miuke½ –

            This method also known as classical method.

            This method also known as perussian method.

(b)        The Leading exponents ¼eq[; izfriknd½  – The main exponents of this method are follows

  1. Johan seiden sticker
  2. Karl plotx
  3. H.S. ollen
  4. Johan medingar

(C)       Common introduction ¼lkekU; ifjp;½  – The translation cum grammar method came in India with Britishers. It is the oldest method of teaching English in India. It has no psychological base but has two philosophical bases.

            (1)  Grammar is the soul of language.

            (2)  A foreign language can be easily learnt through translation so it is called grammar translation method.

(D)       Principles – Grammar translation method is based on following principles

(1)        A fundamental purpose of learning a foreign language is to able to read literature

(2)        An important goal is for students to be able to translate each language

(3)        The ability to communicate in the target language is not a goal of foreign language instruction

(4)        The primary skills to be developed are reading and writing. Little attention is given to listening and speaking, and almost none to pronunciation

(5)        The teacher is thee authority is the classroom

(6)        It is possible to find native language equivalents for all the target language word.

(7)        Learning through similiarity between target language and native language

(8)        It is important for students to learn about the form of the target language.

(9)        Deductive application of an explicit grammar rule is useful pedagogical teachnique.

(10)      Translation interprets the words and phrases of the foreign language in the best possible manner

(11)      The foreign phraseology is best assimilated in this process.

(12)      The structure of foreign language are best learnt when compared with mother tongue.

(E)       Advantage of grammar Translation Method

(1)        Expanse of vocabulary

(2)        Make the use of child knowledge

(3)        Comprehension is easily tested

(4)        Teacher’s power  saved

(5)        The unit of teaching is word not sentence

(6)        Based on known to unknow

(7)        Economical

(8)        Useful for over crowded classes

(9)        Explain grammatical rules

(F)       Disadvantage of Grammar Translation Method

(1)        uninteresting – It is dull and uninteresting method because the learner is inactive of passive in this method.

(2)        Lack of pattern practice

(3)        Lack conversation practice

(4)        unnatural method

(5)        Exact translation is not possible

(6)        Ignore the pronunciation- intonation

(7)        Develop the translation habit

(8)        Loose the correct meaning in translation

(9)        Stop the power of thinking

(10)      Emphasis of grammar rule.

Characteristics of Grammar translation

  •      The method lays stress on reading and writing.
  •     Translation from mother tongue to English and form English to mother tongue is

given to students for  practice

  •      Classes are taught in thee mother tongue with the help of tittle use of target

language language

  •      Much vocabular  is taught in the isolated form.
  •      The text book has an important place in this method
  •      Rules of grammar are taught with the help of seprate grammar book.

  1. THE DIRECT METHOD
  • Introduction – The direct method was originated in france 1901. It came as a      reaction against the translation cum grammar method. It was advocated by
  • Characteristics of Direct method.
  • This method lays emphasis on oral approach and this helps to promote fluency of speech
  • This method is useful in teaching correct pronunciation
  • The learner gets a lot of exposure to the target language
  • The students converse with one another in the target language
  • This method increase the students capacity to hear accurately understand swifty to recall immediately and speak promptly.
  • This method develops self confidence in the students.

(c ) Basic Principles of the direct method

  • The direct method is an attempt to minimise the use of mother tongue.
  • It lays emphasis, purely on oral work at initial stage.
  • It does not lay stress upon the necessity of teaching at the beginning
  • The teaching unit is sentence not a word or phrase.
  • It lays stress on audio visual aids which makes learning interesting.
  • This method is the inhibition of mother tongue.
  • Advantages of the Direct Method –
  • A natural method – The direct method teaches languages in the same way in which the child karns his mother tongue.
  • The learner acquire fluency of speech-
  • It makes the use of audio visual aids
  • It develops the ability of critical study
  • It facilitates reading and writing
  • Cramming of words discouraged.
  • It develops the self confidence

 

  1. Michal West’s Method

Dr. West’s, the director of education in Bengal, invented this method. He describes about this method in his two books-

  1. Learning to speak a foreign language
  2. Bilingualism

He says reading ability can be developed by reading books. For this he developed new books like – New method readers, new method rapid readers.

He gives emphasis on two types of reading-

  1. Oral reading&
  2. Silent reading

Such kind of reading is useful for drilling and make correct pronunciation.

Merits of Dr. Michal West’s method-

  1. It developes reading habits and self activity.
  2. It enrich students vocabulary.
  3. It develops reading habits.
  4. No much money is needed to buy A. V. aids.
  5. It is economical in both time and labour.

Demerits of Dr. Michal West’s method-

  1. Only reading without understanding is useless and boring.
  2. At early stage, readers and rapid readers do not help the beginners.
  3. This method is not based on psycholigcal principles.

  1. Substitution Method
  2. E. Palmer adopted this method. This method is also known as substitution Table method.

Principles of Substitution method-

  1. The words of phrases are according to the standard of the students.
  2. There is one model sentence. This model sentence is used as a framework or mould and into this mould we put other words of phrases.
  3. These substituted words are of the same grammatical family to which the model sentence belongs.

5 Bilingual Method

Bilingual Method is devised by Prof. C. J. Dodson of wales. This method is a midway between the old methods- The translation-cum-grammar method and the direct method

Principles of Bilingual method-

  1. In this method situations are created by giving the mother tongue equivalent of English words.
  2. Setence is the unit of teaching.
  3. Mother tongue is used to explain the meaning of new words, phrases, sentences etc.

Merits of Bilingual method-

  1. It is beneficial for all types of schools located in rural or urban areas.
  2. It is more effective method.
  3. It seves the time, labour & energy of the teacher.
  4. It is important for speech practice.

Demerits of Bilingual method-

  1. Other aspects like reading and writing are ignored.
  2. Students are passive listeners.
  3. Grammar is not taught in this method.

Prof. H. N. L. Shastri of C. I. F. E. L., Hyderabad found that Bilingual method is suitable for Indian conditions. It suits social, economic and cultural background of our conditions.

                                          Exercise

  1. The extensive use of mother tongue is advocated in

A-Direct                                       B-Oral method

C-Structural method                          D-Grammar Translation

  1. In the grammar translation method-

A-The teacher is not outhority

B-Translation is not given importance

C-Mother tongue is not used

D-There is little chance of teacher-students interaction.

  1. The grammar translation method emphasizes.

A-oral fluency                                 B-listening and speaking

C-practical mastry of speech         D-The use of mother tongue

  1. What is the soul of language?

A-structure                                    B-grammar

C-composition                        D-comprehension

  1. The leading exponents of grammar translation method were

A-C. J. Dodson                                B-H. E. Palmer

C-Dr. west and Robert Hook         D-Johan Seiden and johan Medingar

  1. The mother tongue occupies an important place in-

A-Direct method                               B-Dr. West’s method

C-Bilingual method                            D-Grammar- Translation

  1. Rules of grammar are taught separately in

A-Bilingual method                            B-Direct method

C-Structure method                           D-Grammar- Translation

  1. Which method has enjoyed the widest popularity in the teaching of English.

A-Dr. west method                            B-Direct method

C-Grammar translation method            D-Bilingual method

  1. Which method should be used to teach at primary level?

A-Reformed method                  B-Direct method

C-project method                             D-grammar translation

  1. In the translation-cum-grammar method much stress is laid on-

A-vocabulary                          B-inductive method

C-structure                                    D-translating English into Hindi

  1. The rule from “known to unknown” is used in-

A-Bilingual method                            B-Direct method

C-Dr. west’s method                  D-translation method

  1. Grammar is taught with a grammar book this method is called.

A-Informal method                    B-Inductive method

C-Deductive method                  D-Classical method

  1. Which one of the following methods is the oldest method of teaching English?

A-Dr. west’s method                  B-Direct method

C-The substitution table method      D-The grammar translation method

  1. The grammar translation method is known as-

A-The oldest method                  B-New method

C-Classical method                 D-None of these

  1. Which educationist is not consider as the leading exponent of grammar translation method

A-Johan-sedein-sticker                       B-Johan-medingar

C-H. S. ollen                                   D-Karl Rozzar

  1. Principles of Motivation

Motivation is the soul of teaching learning process.

It is psychological process.

Motivation is the super highway of learning.

A student can himself learn the language if he is motivated by the teacher to learn the language. If a child is to learn, he must be motivated.

Types of motivation – There two types of motivation

  1. External Motivation.
  2. Internal Motivation
  • External Motivation ¼cká vfHkizsj.kk½ – Sometimes, the learner is not internally motivated, there would be the need of extrinsic or external motivation for thee learner to achieve the particular objective of English teaching. External motivation is developed and created by the English teacher in the learner.
  • Internal Motivation ¼vkUrfjd vfHkizsj.kk½ – The Internal Motivation is related to the internal nature of the individual emotions. Child’s own ambitions and desires motivate him.

Techniques of motivation – There four techniques to motivate learner-

  • Expectancy Techniques – This technique lays emphasis on formulate clear cut goal before students.
  • Arousing Techniques – These techniques will arouse students from a state of sleepiness, frustration, anxiety and create an interest to learn the language.

To arouse a student teacher can use following devices-

  • Model
  • Chart
  • Map
  • Audio-visual aids
  • Picture
  • Diagaram
  • Incentive Techniques – These techniques involves following devices to motivate the learner-
  • Reward
  • Award
  • Prizes
  • Punishment
  • Praise
  • Grade
  • Competitions
  • Varied Techniques – A single technique used by the English teacher may bring boredom, fatigue, drudgery and monotony. For effective learning varied techniques are to be used. Variety in teaching learning process may be brought by change. This change can be of two types.
  • Change in subject Matter
  • Change in methods, techniques and devices.

2 . The principal of naturalness

Man has natural tendency to learn language for self-expression, for communication and, for information.

This principle of teaching lays emphasis to create suitable and natural atmosphere it can be possible by using following steps.

  • Talking to students in the foreign language in the class, playground etc.
  • Encouraging students, to converse in only this language.
  • Arranging for group discussions.
  1. The Principle of Habit –formation –

Language learning is a skill which need constant practice

Habit is the second nature of man which makes the speech natural.

This principle is based upon formulating habits in learner

Type of habit –

  • Habit of listening
  • Habit of speaking
  • Habit of reading
  • Habit of writing.

According to Palmer, “Language learning is essentially a habit forming process, a process during which we acquire new habits.”

Apart from the habits of four skills of language the following habits should be formulated in the students by our English teachers –

  • Habit of Imitating
  • Habit of Repeating
  • Habit of spelling
  • Habit of correct use of language.
  • Habit of correct pronunciation
  • Habit of consulting dictionary
  • Habit of going of library
  • Habit of reading of newspapers, journals, magazines and story books.

  1. The Principle of using Mother-Tongue

Mother-tongue may be helpful in teaching foreign language. As Robert Paul says in his book “Understanding  English” –  When we learn speech. When be learn a second language we tend to filter the universe through the language already know.

Mother-tongue may be helpful in teaching foreign language in the following ways-

  • In the formation of thought and ideas
  • In the oral and written expression
  • In the formation of reading habit
  • In the learning of lxical items.
  • In the learning of functional grammar.

  1. Principles of Gradation
  • Meaning of gradation – Gradation = make easy to the matter. In gradation the whole study material should present in grading system.
  • Principles of Gradation – The Principle of gradation is based on following principles.
  • Principles of Simplicity – Language items should be presented from simple to complex.
  • Principle of Familiarity – The principle is based upon known to unknown
  • Principle of teachability – According to this principle study material should be graded in concrete to abstract.
  • Principle of Grouping – Grouping may be following types –
  • Photnetic Grouping – In this grouping, minimal pairs (Pairs of words differing in one sound only) are taught together, e.g., see, tea, feed etc.
  • Lexical Grouping – When words are grouped according to situation, it is called ‘lexical grouping’, e.g. father, mother, brother, sister , grandmother can be taught in one context, i.e. family.
  • Grammatical Grouping – sometimes we can group material on the basis of ‘sentence structure’, g. I am sitting. You are sitting. She is sitting. He sitting. They are sitting. Can be taught together. This type of grouping is called grammatical’.
  • Semantic Grouping – Words that convey similar meanings are grouped under one head. For example, the idea of shelter is given by house, hotel, inn, tent, hut, etc.
  • Principle of Sequencing – Sequencing may be following types-
  • Grammatical Sequence
  • Lexical Sequence
  • Semantic Sequeence

                             Exercise

  1. What kind of Motivation a teacher can develop?

A-Internal                                  B-External

C-Both Internal and External                      D-Only Internal

  1. What kind of Motivation is related to the internal nature of the individual emotions?

A-Internal Motivation                            B-External Motivation

C-Both Internal and External                     D-Only Internal

  1. What is the purpose of motivation?

A-To create zeal                          B-To create personality

C-To create need                         D-To create emotion

  1. What are the sources which make enable a teacher to create external motivation.

A-Pictures, models, maps, charts, awards, and rewards

B-Need, wish, dersir and interst

C-Awards, goal, desire interest

D-Pictures, models, maps, goal, need, desire

  1. The emotions which enable a learner to get motivation internally.

A-Ambitions and desires                B-awards and rewards

C-Pictures and Maps                     D-Audio visual aids

  1. What is the super highway to learning?

A-Motivation                             B-Need

C-Interst                                   D-Desire

  1. How many types of Motivation?

A-Two                                     B-Three

C-Four                                    D-Six

  1. Which technique of Motivation emphasis on formulate clear cut goal?

A-Expectancy technique                B-Arousing technique

C-Incentive technique                    D-Varied technique

  1. Which technique emphasis to motive learner by using rewards, awards, praises and punishment.

A-Incentive technique                   B-Arousing technique

C-Varied technique                       D-Expectancy technique

  1. According to which principle of teaching only exposure is insufficient for language teaching?

A-Principle of purpose            B-Principle of comprehensible input

C-Principle of motivation         D-Principle of language opportunities

  1. Who gave the principle of motivation?

A-Dewey                                  B-Skinner

C-Friad                                    D-Me. Doogle

  1. According to, Herbert Grammar should be taught by-

A-Inductive Method

B-Deductive Method

C-Inductive and Deductive Method

D-None of these

  1. According to which principle, learner follows the sound and language patterns of parents, teachers and even classmates?

A-Principle of Imitation

B-Principle of providing Conductive Environment

C-Principle of Multiple line of approach

D-Principle of comprehensible input

  1. “A child can remember a ‘rose’ more if he had seen it himself than he hadn’t seen.” This is an example of-

A-Principle of Accuracy and correctness

B-Principle of phonology

C-Principle of learning by doing

D-Principle of concreteness.

  1. LSRW stands for –

A-Listening, Specializing, Rote memorization and writing

B-Learning, Speaking, Right thinking and Writing

C-Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing

D-All of these

  1. The purpose of teaching a poetry test is more on-

A-Enjoyment and developing literary sensitivity

B-Enrichment of vocabulary

C-Grammatical awareness

D-Familiarization of sounds

  1. While speaking for the first time the students generally face –

A-Inhibition                               B-Confidence

C-Both inhibition and confidence D-Fear psychosis

  1. Story telling is a/an –

A-Method                                 B-Strategy

C-Technique                      D-Approach

  1. Which one of the following is not a language component?

A-Vocabulary                              B-Structure

C-Sound                                 D-Script

  1. The process of second language that acquisitions is influenced by languages that the learner already knows.

A-Inter-language                         B-systemic errors

C-language transfer                       D-phonology

  1. Which of the following is incorrect about principle of accuracy and correctness.

A-Selection of the words should be correct

B-Use of the words should be economical

C-Expression should be impressive

D-Pronunciation may be incorrect

  1. …………….. is based on the thought that the whole system of language cannot be taught in a small period.

A-Principles of selection                B-Principles of Gradation

C-Principles of Presentation              D-Principles of testing

  • The meaning of the term “Communicative”:-

Sharing the views, opinions, thoughts and experiences from one to another is to communicate.

Communication is made up of the integration or harmonization of the four skills (LSRW) of language. [L = Listening, S = Speaking, R = Reading, W + Writing]

CLT is a learner oriented approach. The learner or pupil himself is the initiative in the teaching learning program.

CLT was founded in 1970’s against the structure based approaches. (Structural approach+Audio lingual approach)

The CLT opposes the structure based approaches on the ground that:-

The memorization, habit formation, drills and pattern practice make the responses more mechanical.

CLT lays emphasis on cultivating the following two competence:-

  • The communicative competence and
  • The linguistic

Note:- The term ‘communicative competence’ was coined by ‘Del Hymes’

  • The communicative competence:-

A skill to share or communicative views, thoughts, feelings and experiences through LSRW in a spontaneous manner.

  • Linguistic competence:-

A skill to handle language through phonological, morphological and syntax items CLT teaches and cultivates all the four skills (LSRW) simultaneous.

Contextualization is a basic premies in CLT.

Meaning is paramount (significant) in CLT.

Language learning is learning to communicate.

Drilling may occur, but peripherally.

Any device that helps the learner is accepted.

Judicious use of native language is accepted.

Translation may be used where necessary.

Reading and writing can start from the first day, if desired.

Communicative competence is the desired goal in CLT.

Fluency and acceptable language is the primary goal in CLT.

  • The role of teacher in CLT

The teacher is a guide and friend to the learner in CLT.

The teacher is never a controller and instructor in CLT.

Teacher plays following roles in CLT:-

  • As classroom manager, he is responsible for grouping activities into ‘lessons’ and for ensuring that these are satisfactorily organized at a practical leval.
  • As a general observer of his student’s learning, the teacher must aim to coordinate the activities so that they form a coherent progression, leading towards greater communicative ability.
  • As a general instructor:- In many activities, teacher may perform the familiar role of a language instructor he will present new language, exercise direct control over the learners’ performance, evaluate and correct it, and so on.
  • As a interviewer:- In others, he will not intervene after initiating the proceedings, but will let learning take place through independent activity or pair and group work.
  • As an active participant:- When such an activity is in progress he may act as consultant of adviser, helping where necessary. He may also move about the classroom in order to monitor the strengths and weaknesses of the learners, as a basis for planning future learning activities.

  • The role of learner in CLT

The learner is an initiative in CLT.

The Learner is foci (the central) in CLT

Note:- CLT is a learner is pivotal in CLT.

  • Main characteristics of Communicative approach-

CLT is usually characterized as a broad approach to teaching, rather than as  a teaching method with a clearly defined set of classroom practices. As such, it is most often defined as a list of general principles of features. One of the most recognized of these lists is David Nunan’s (1991) five features of CLT:

  • An emphasis on learning to communicate through interaction in the target language.
  • The introduction of authentic of authentic texts into the learning situation.
  • The provision of opportunities for learners to focus, not only language but also on the learning process itself.
  • An enhancement of the learner’s own personal experiences as important contributing elements to classroom learning.
  • An attempt to link classroom language learning with language activities outside the classroom.

The Main characteristics of communication approach are given below-

  • It gives emphasis on the sermonic objective of the language which means the meaning of language in real life situation and contexts.
  • It lays less stress on grammar.
  • The communicative approach is based upon need analysis and planning to prepare communicative curricular and syllabuses.
  • It lays emphasis on language in use rather than language as structure.
  • The skills of speaking and writing are included in communicative approach.
  • It is based upon the concept of how language is used and what is functional utility of language.
  • It provides the communicative opportunities where the students may be able to communicate their ideas through dialogue, discussions, debate literary and cultural activities of the school

“A communicative approach opens up a wider perspective on language learning. In particular, it makes us more strongly aware that it is not enough to teacher learners how to manipulate structures of the foreign language. They must also develop strategies for relating these structures to their communicative functions in real situations and real time”.

  • Merits of communicative Approach-

The following are the merits of communicative approach-

  • More language practice- Pupils get more language practice. As most of the work in the communicative language approach is done in pairs and small groups, pupils have more opportunities to interact in the foreign language.
  • More involvement – Pupils are more involved in learning. They feel secure and do not fight shy of speaking English in a small group. Thus they get confidence to speak the language. They share their ideas with others. They get more opportunities to express their own individuality.
  • Fluency in speech – As pupils concentrate on speaking English, they become fluent speakers. They learn the appropriate use of language.
  • Co-operative relationships – The teacher’s role in the teaching learning process is less dominant. There are more opportunities for co-operative relationships to emerge, both between the teacher and pupils, and among pupils.
  • Communicative Approach develops the speech ability among the students.
  • It teaches different ways of experessiong.
  • This approach is based on the practical utility.
  • It lays more stress on the functional value of the language.
  • It enables the students to communicative their ideas both inside and outside the class-room.

  • Demerits of Communicative Approach –

The following are demerits of communicative approach –

  • Teacher’s competence – Some teachers them-selves cannot speak English fluently. In any case, the teacher has to be recriented to use the new approach. So it is doubtful whether an average teacher of English can make a success of this approach.
  • Neglect of reading skill – With its over – emphasis on oral communication the communicative approach neglects reading. This drawback needs to be remove.
  • Over – crowded classes – The Indian classroom are overflowing with pupils. It is not easy to seat them properly for pair work and group work.
  • Unanswered question – According to Richards and Rodgers the following questions regarding the communicative approach are still debated –
  • Can the communicative approach be applied at all levels in a language programme?
  • Is communicative approach equally suited to ESL (English as a second language) and EFL (English as a foreign language) situations?
  • Does the communicative approach require grammar – based syllabuses to be abandoned or merely revised?
  • This approach ignores grammar and structures.
  • It is not properly and scientifically develop as yet.
  • It is a new approach and it is to be used and tested in out school for language teaching.
  • Practical utility of this approach is yet to be confirmed.
  • Trained teachers are not available in this approaches to teach English language.

  • Classroom activities in CLT –

Classroom activities used in communicative language teaching include the following.

  • Role – play
  • Interviews
  • Information gap
  • Games
  • Language exchanges
  • Surveys
  • Pair – work
  • Learning by teaching

Minimal pairs

word 1 word 2 IPA 1 IPA 2 note
pin bin /pɪn/ /bɪn/ initial consonant
rot lot /rɒt/ /lɒt/
thigh thy /θaɪ/ /ðaɪ/
zeal seal /ziːl/ /siːl/
bin bean /bɪn/ /biːn/ vowel
pen pan /pɛn/ /pæn/
cook kook /kʊk/ /kuːk/
hat had /hæt/ /hæd/ final consonant
mean meme /miːn/ /miːm/

Exercise

  1. In Communicative language teaching –

A-The teacher assumes the role of a controller

B-The learner get actively engaged in the process of learning

C-The students act as advisors

D-The students are passive learners

  1. In which method both the teacher and the learner are involved in the decision making process of the curriculum –

A-Grammar Translation Method B-Direct Method

C-Communicative Method              D-Substantial Method

  1. In communicative syllabus design grammar is taught –

A-Deductively

B-Inductively

C-Both deductively and Inductively

D-Co-referencely

  1. In Communicative Approach –

A-From is primary

B-Functions are primary

C-Both form and functions are primary

D-Structure is primary

  1. Communicative English language Teaching (CELT) is a / an –

A-approach                               B-skill

C-method                                 D-Technique

  1. Communicative language Teaching is a kind of –

A-Communicative competence

B-oral-aural approach

C-Linguistic Competence

D-Both communicative and linguistic competence

  1. In CELT ‘Communicative competence’ means –

A-to listen and speak freely

B-a skill to interact with other people

C-to share ideas freely

D-All of these

  1. What is “Linguistic competence’ in CELT?

A-a skill to interact with other people

B-a skill to handle language skills – (LSRW) in terms of phonology, and syntax

C-a science of language

D-All of these

  1. Which new skill is formed in the process of learning all the four skills simultaneously in CLT?

A-Linguistic skill                           B-Communicative skill

C-Listening-speaking skill         D-Audio-Lingual skill

  1. Which one of the following is emphasized through CLT?

A-functioning of mind of pupils    B-Social aspects of the language

C-learning of language by use    D-All of these

  1. CLT (communicative) avoids –

A-learning of language by ‘use’

B-learning of language by functioning of mind

C-learning of language by ‘habit formation’

D-None of these

  1. Communicative language teaching aims at –

A-Cultivating learner’s ability to use the language in social contexts

B-Cultivating the skills to use and understand the language both linguistically and communicatively

C-understanding linguistic and communicative knowledge

D-All of these

  1. Which one of the following is not a principle of CLT?

A-The whole is more then the sum of the parts

B-Learn the target language  by habit formation and rules

C-mistakes are not always a mistake

D-The processes are as important as the forms

  1. Which one of the following is not applicable for CLT-

A-It emphasizes ‘Integrative’ role of language teaching

B-It emphasize the social aspect of the language

C-It teaches communication (language) by ‘use’

D-It Say’s “First learn the language and then use it”

  1. Communicative Language teaching is a reaction against –

A-use of language than to learn it

B-Natural learning of English by ‘use’

C-Conventional belief of learning the language first and then to use it  

D-Active role of the students as an initiative in the process of language learning

  1. Which one of the following is not an assumption of CLT-

A-Language learning in an active development process

B-Habit-forming make our actions and responses rather mechanical

C-Teacher is the central as well as initative to the process of teaching learning

D-All of four skills learnt forms

  1. Which one the following approach teaches the social-aspect of the language-

A-Direct method                   B-structural approach

C-Situational approach                    D-Communicative approach

  1. Communicative – Approach assumes of believes that the skill of communication involves-

A-habit-forming

B-functioning of the mind

C-Learning by heart

D-active role of the teacher as a guide and controller

  1. Which one of the following is not an adequate step to teach communication in CLT?

A-Learn first and then use it

B-Create real life situation

C-create the need among learners

D-Create an ability to manage on part of the learners.

  1. Minimal pairs are usually used to give practice in –

A-Reading                                 B-Vocabulary

C-structure                               D-Pronunciation

  1. When a teacher uses lessons in science and social science to teach language, such as an approach can be termed as –

A-Objective language teaching

B-Pluralistic language teaching

C-Discipline wise language teaching

D-Language across the curriculum

  1. Language skill should be taught-

A-Through imitation                       B-In isolation

C-Through clear explanation             D-In an integrated manner

  1. Which Technique of Motivation emphasis on formulate clear cut goal?

A-Expectancy teachnique               B-Arousing teachnique

C-Incentive teachnique                   D-Varied teachnique

  1. According to which principle of teaching only exposure is insuffilent for language teaching?

A-Principle of purpose                    B-Principle of comprehensible input

C-Principle of motivation         D-Principle of language opportunities

  1. Constructivist approach to language teaching expects the teacher to-

A-help construct knowledge using their experiences

B-give pre-constructed knowledge to learners

C-construct his own curriculum

D-make learners prepare their own text-book

  1. Who gave the Principle of Motivation?

A-Dewey                                  B-Skinner

C-Friud                                    D-Me. Doogle

  1. According to, Herbert Grammar should be taught by –

A-Inductive Method

B-Deductive Method

C-Inductive and Deductive Method

D-None of these

  1. Intensive reading is –

A-Through and vigorous                B-Surface and rapid

C-Slow and brief                          D-None of these

  1. The order of the sub-skills for speaking is-

A-Listen actively, respond to others, understand proper

B-Respond other, understand proper, listen actively

C-Understand proper, listen actively, respond to other

D-Listen actively, understand proper, respond to other

  1. Use of game like activities facilitate-

A-Listening skill                           B-Reading skill

C-Speaking skill                 D-Writing skill

  1. The term ‘scanning’ is associated with-

A-Intensive Reading

B-Extensive Reading

C-Both Intensive and Extensive Reading

D-None of these

  1. Communicative Language Teaching Approach emphasizes-

A-Intergrated role of the four language skills through drill and practice

B-All the language skills to be taught one by one

C-Cultivation of only speaking skill trough dialogue and pronunciation drill

D-Integrated role of the four language skills through functional and structural aspects of language

  1. In the communicative classroom, learners acquire the grammar of second language to-

A-enhance their formal communication skills

B-write confidently

C-understand second language better while reading/listening to it

D-understand how to make meaning and become more proficient in speaking and writing

  1. Under Constructivist Approach to language learning, learners are encouraged to-

A-avoid errors completely

B-practice language drills mechanically

C-learn the grammar rules by rote

D-discover the rules of grammar from examples

Introduction:-

            English holds a place of status in our country, even after more than six decades since Britishers left India. No indigenous language however has come up to replace English, either as a medium of communication or as an official language in India under the influence of nationalistic feeling and emotional hostility English began to reassert its position. The subject of the present paper is an overview of main problems connected with teaching English as second language. Now a day it is still urgent to discuss, what to teach and how to teach a foreign language taking into account the objective, social and professional needs of future specialists in our country. Besides businessmen, tradesmen, engineers, scientists and scholars all over the world must know English because it is the international means of exchange of information and experience. The students have to learn foreign language because students of any subject, any discipline must learn a foreign language teaching it is necessary to formulate its actual and realistic aims and tasks. Whenever we come across any result we see the crucial role of English in decreasing the result. The way English is taught in our colleges today is to a great extent responsible for the failure. The aims of English education and teaching are certainly very lofty and there are inadequate means to realize them. The policy makers have forgotten that English is not the mother-tongue of Indians. We must accept that the standard of its teaching has fallen vastly and that is why it is essential to know the problems of teaching English in India at undergraduate level in the colleges.

            This paper is an attempt to trace the problems faced by both the teacher and the student in the English teaching and learning process at undergraduate level. The paper aims at presenting the contemporary situations in India with regard to English and suggesting remedies where these are called for. The intensity grows as we go from metro cities to rural areas. Here is an effort to search the problems in learning English in rural areas and some suggestions to overcome the same. Problems of Teaching English as a second Language.

  • Psychological Problems: –   It is a widespread misunderstanding amongst students that English thee most difficult of all subjects. The result and the failure candidates act as evidence to prove this fact. Hence most of the students look at this subject with a prejudiced vision and bear the fear through the year. The psychological depression results in poor performance at the end of the year.
  • Learning Methods:- The primary aim of teaching English at this stage should be to concentrate on the fundamental skills of the language ability of the student namely listening, speaking, reading and writing.

It is of paramount importance that the teacher should know what his task is and what he is trying to achieve by teaching English. They go on with their job of teaching without knowing the difficulties of the learner. The teacher should be fully aware of the fact that his student’s proficiency in English is not up to mark owing to the deteriorating standard of teaching in school. Our objectives of teaching English should be practical and in keeping with the standard of proficiency achieved by our students. We should emphasize on the main aims of teaching English to develop the ability of students to read and understand. It is an overall practice to use Artificial or Indirect Method instead of Natural of Direct Method of Teaching English. We all learn our mother tongue very easily because we use Natural of Direct Method of learning.

We follow this sequence-

When we start anything with difficulty obviously there are greater chances of failure. One of the reasons for the declining standards of teaching English is the inability of teachers to understand the difference between   the teaching of literature and the teaching of language skills. Everybody knows that the study of a language is not an end in itself, it is a means to develop one’s power of expression and comprehension can be achieved by mastering stylistic elements of the language.

  • Problem of Concretizing the Abstract Idea:- The teacher faces a serious problem of concretizing the abstractness of the novel, poem, passage, words etc. They face difficulty in creating live pictures. The students find it difficult to understand the abstract idea and so they are unable to comprehend the lectures given by their teachers in English. If a poem on sadness is going on in the class the teacher should teach it so effectively that the students get tears in their eyes. This type of experience is hardly found in classroom teaching at present. In fact the teacher is always in a hurry to complete the portion and feels that it is waste of time to arouse emotions and interact with the students.
  • Translation Method:- Translation method is widely used in rural areas. It helps the learner to understand the content of the text but bars from learning the language. The main purpose of teaching the language is kept aside and the teaching of content and theme is given importance. Translation method is thus a great problem in learning English.
  • Mother Tongue Interference: – Most of the problems arise due to the interference of mother tongue in speaking English. Both the teachers and the students are very fluent in talking their own mother-tongue. But they forget the essence of pure language. When they speak in their mother-tongue they sometimes use English words in the midst of the sentences. They forget that every language differs in stress, intonation and pronunciation.
  • Difference in English:- English is pronounced in a very different way from almost all other languages of the world. Every region of the world where English is spoken has a different accent. When you are teaching English as second language, you must bear in mind that your Students will not know the difference between US English, Queen’s English and the entire sundry English’s of the world. This could lead to confusions.
  • Lack of Practice:- Language could be mastered by practicing all the four skills viz. Listening, Speaking, Reading, Writing. The rural surrounding does not allow the learner to practice any of these skills. The lack of audio tools also adds in the problem of lack of practice. Many teachers are unable to teach English effectively because they face lot of problems due to the lack of teaching aids. There are very few audio-visual aids available and it is insufficient for the teachers to use it effectively. Some are so costly that the colleges can only afford to buy few.
  • Lack of Interest: – Learning English being compelled has merely become a hurdle in passing. Students only concentrate on passing marks. They do not care for learning the language as a tool of communication. Teacher and the taught both look at this subject as an unavoidable hurdle and try their level best to cross this hurdle any how. The report of the Secondary Education Commission says:
  • Lack of Motivation: In learning a second or a foreign language, motivation is the crucial force which determines whether the learner embarks on a task at all, how much energy he devotes to it and how long he perseveres. It is known as a complex phenomenon and includes many components, such as, the individual’s drive, need for achievement and success, curiosity, desire for stimulation and new experience, and so on.
  • Malpractices in Exam: – One of the factors responsible for the deterioration is the pattern of question setting. It is easy to predict what questions would be asked on what books in which examinations. The students simply have to memorize. The teacher also teaches only those aspects which are important for the examinations. In most of rural areas we see that malpractice at the time of exam is a common practice. It is on its peak at the exam of English. Students, Teachers, nonteaching staff, parents, relatives, principal, officer in charge of exam, co-officer in charge of exam and many others are involved in this custom of malpractice. They all intensify the problem of learning English in rural areas.
  • Mistakes in English:- Most of the mistakes are made unknowingly i.e. when making a mistake becomes habitual; we keep making the same mistake even without realizing it. If w study this problem in a scientific manner by trying to know what is the actual cause behind making the mistake we would be able to avoid it.
  • Crowded Classes :- The size of the classes everywhere is considerably large and thus student’s participation in the class work is quite impossible. The ratio of students in relation to teachers is not proportional. This is one of the reasons why individual attention is not possible to the students. For individual attention, there is a provision of tutorial classes but the number of students in Tutorials is also very large, because most of the college can afford neither so many rooms for this purpose nor so many teachers to conduct effective teaching of English. It should also be recognized that the practical work in the teaching of English demands that the number of students in the class be limited. Solutions or Remedies:
  • Building a Rapport with Your Class :- When you enter the class for the first time it is very important that you give a welcoming smile to your students and greet them. Your assuring smile and greeting them in a familiar manner helps them bond with you instantly. When they bond with you, they will find learning the language to interact with you.
  • Place of English should be Defined : – English offers vast opportunities to all. The policy regarding the place of English in our education system should be well defined. This should be determined keeping in view its use and vast opportunities in the field of science, technology, social sciences, philosophy, area studies, journalism, international trade and diplomacy.
  • Applying Different Methods of Teaching:- The teacher while teaching English should use the different methods of teaching English to the students. The teacher can also make use of the language lab. Some of the methods of teaching English are as follows:
  1. The grammar translation method.
  2. The direct method.
  3. The series method.
  4. Variation of direct method.
  5. The oral approach/situational language teaching.
  6. Audio lingual method
  7. Communicative language teaching.
  8. Directed practice.
  9. Learning by teaching.

Use of appropriate method for teaching various topics accordingly helps to enhance the effect of teaching language.

  • Building Confidence Among Students:- At the first meeting itself train your students to ask some simple English questions and give their answers, examples are ‘What is your name?’, ‘Which country are you from?’, ‘Who is your best friend?’, etc. Many teachers of English as a second language make the mistake of beginning with the alphabet. This is wrong. When you train them to ask questions on the first day itself, your students will definitely show off these questions to their folks. And their interest in the language will be built. They will come with higher hopes of learning more things the next day. The teacher should emphasize more on the language learning skills than the portion completion at the undergraduate level.
  • Keeping in Mind Aims of Teaching English:- The teacher should always emphasize on the aims of teaching English. It will help to teach effectively. These aims are:
  1. To enable the students to understand English when spoken.
  2. To enable the students to speak in English.
  3. To enable the students to read English.
  4. To enable the students to write in English.

These are the primary aims of teaching English instead of enabling the student to pass in the upper class.

  • Improvement in Teaching Facilities:- Special Efforts should be made to ensure that teachers get proper teaching facilities, including space, books and teaching aids. The school and the college libraries should subscribe good journals which may enable them to know the latest developments in the field of linguistics and English language teaching.
  • Make Students Think in English:- Make it a very firm rule but subtly implied that there will be no other language spoken in your class other than English. Exhort them to think in English. This a mammoth task, and can be achieved only after some weeks or probably months of teaching.
  • End the Socio-Psychological Problems:- Many think English as the most difficult language and many call it unnecessary to learn it. The efforts of the teacher should be in eradicating the Socio Psychological problems of the students, by motivating them and giving them some responsibility.
  • Building Communication Skill:- Never teach your students always speak with them. Converse with the students about day-to-day things. Keep talking with them in wimple English. They will talk when the initial icebreakers are done with And when they will talk, they will learn. Encourage your students to talk. As long as the students attempts to talk in English make it a point to listen.
  • Internal Tests:- We have certain internal makes reserved for the tutorial sessions but still many students feel it is waste of time and they remain absent. These internal tests and tutorials should be made compulsory to every student.
  • Handling Mistakes with Care:- Mistakes will happen in the class and you have to learn how to handle them deftly. If you laugh at the students they will be too embarrassed to make any further attempts at speaking the language. If you do not laugh students will feel you are only being too kind to them and might always think they have said something wrong but you are hiding your amusement.
  • Matching Level with Your Students:- Being a teacher you know the language and might have got accolades for it but your student cannot even frame three sentences in English properly. Only your perseverance will help them do it. Remember that your students are not native English speakers they will not be able to even ask you their doubts. Be patient with them and encourage them to express themselves.

Conclusion:- Teaching English as second language is really a fun if you do it in the right sporting way. You have to make it fun for your students too that’s the way they will learn better.

                                                Exercise

  1. “A student recommends the reading of the latest best seller, saying that it is very interesting. You listen, trying to make out whether the student’s observation is sincere of not.” This type of listening can be described as-

A-comprehension                         B-sympathetic

C-active    a                        D-critical

  1. “Children deserve most of the credit for the language that they acquire.” This observation implies that in modern classrooms-

A-students need not attend L2 classes

B-students may choose L2 on their own

C-the teacher establishes the task and supports or facilitates learning

D-audio discs and tapes

  1. Types of ‘text media’ are-

A-illustrations and diagrams              B-motion pictures and documentaries

C-digital e-books, e-journals            D-audio discs and tapes

  1. Which of the following resources will help to break down communication barriers and enable children to study and learn in both L1 and L2”

A-Multimedia                              B-More textual

C-Communicative                        D-Multilingual

  1. Students learning a language often lack confidence when speaking due to the language’s unique pronunciation rules. One way to overcome this problem is-

A-using game-like activities which require verbal interactions in the classroom

B-conducting special speech therapy with a counselor

C-correcting errors whenever they happen

D-children reading aloud in class

  1. The contemporary target language classroom is a confluence of varied languages and language abilities. Teachers should restructure their practices by exposing students to-

A-worksheets with a variety of tasks which cover the syllabus, and student give their responses in class under teacher’s guidance

B-appropriate challenges based on the syllabus, in a secure environment, opportunities for all students to explore ideas and gain mastery

C-adequate self-explanatory notes, either prepared by teacher or from material writers

D-summaries and simplified versions of the learning material, e.g., stories, grammar notes, etc.

  1. For students to gain language skills from textbooks, the textbook learning should-

A-lead to using the textbook sparingly

B-expose them to more literary reading

C-become more cost-effective compared to technologically supported courses

D-co-relate with assessment and achievement

  1. While teaching hearing impaired students in an inclusive class, it is necessary for teachers to-

A-conduct regular a special class for such students

B-be in constant touch with the parents of such student

C-use cue cards to signal the teaching content

D-make sure that they are including sings and nonverbal signals to strengthen any communication

  1. While translating a subject and using the translation in the mainstream curriculum, the benefit is-

A-enriching linguistic capability and appreciation

B-enabling teachers who are not competent in the mainstream language to take classes

C-standardizing cultural identity

D-promoting national identity

  1. Some criteria for the selection of language items should involve-

A-everyday vocabulary and sentences

B-their learn ability, coverage and teach-ability

C-a focus on language rules

D-enough worksheets for practice

  1. For evaluating a poster designed as a part of a competition, which of the following criteria would be the most appropriate for the judges?

A-use of quotations, style and visual appeal

B-Creativity, relevant content and visual appeal

C-Creativity, fonts and visual appeal

D-Relevant content, style and word limit

  1. Learners lack confidence to speak in the target language in class where the main language of conversation is the local vernacular. This challenge can by met by-

A-allowing students to watch English films as motivation, practice a drill consisting of useful sentences and vocabulary with regular correction of grammatical errors

B-insisting on students’ using only the target language irrespective of the grammatical errors, enhance their vocabulary, with regular feedback on their performance

C-instructing them to speak slowly and self-correct grammatical errors, enhance their vocabulary with a list of useful words

D-allowing students to speak about whatever they can, irrespective of the grammatical errors, enhance their vocabulary and gradually make corrections

  1. Students who do not have the opportunities to use the target language outside the classroom, demonstrate much lower levels of language competency. This can be overcome by-

A-giving them a set of commonly used sentences and vocabulary which they are expected to use

B-setting separate tasks which are easier, with more time to complete them

C-engaging them in specific language focused tasks which are indirectly monitored by their group leaders.

D-conducting tests periodically to motivate them learn

  1. Generally speaking, the first language is-

A-marked by the characteristic difficulty in mastering it

B-marked by the influenes of the school environment the child is studying in

C-marked by the accent and regional expressions of the area where students grow up

D-influenced by the grammar and style of second language

  1. Language learning is better achieved if what students learn-

A-is closer in form and sound to their mother tongue

B-helps them improve their chances of collage admission

C-is functional in terms of their life values and goals

D-is in a controlled classroom environment

  1. An effective language teacher-

A-will use the text-book as well as other material as resources for teaching

B-will prepare question papers using only the questions given in the text-book

C-will rely entirely on the prescribed text-book

D-will make children learn all the answers to the questions given in the text-book

  1. Telling interesting stories to young learners is primarily meant for improving their-

A-Speaking skills                  B-Listening skills

C-Reading skills                           D-Writing skills

  1. Knowledge of more than one language-

A-confuses the learners while learning a new language

B-is very helpful in teaching and learning a new language

C-causes interference in learning a new language

D-becomes a burden to the teacher in the language classroom

  1. Curriculum is an educational programme which does not state-

A-the means of evaluating whether the educational objectives have been achieved of not    

B-thee content (material etc.), teaching strategies and learning experiences which will be necessary to achieve this purpose

C-the educational purpose of a programme

D-the number of lessons to be taught in a term

  1. We use real objects to teach young learners new words because-

A-we can teach vocabulary only through objects

B-young learners are not capable of abstract thinking

C-it helps learners associate words with objects they see in real life

D-it help in teaching the correct spelling of words

  1. The main responsibility of a language teacher as a facilitator is-

A-to provide a lot of information and make the learners listen to it

B-to strictly control the class and cover the syallabus in quick time

C-to read the lessons aloud and provide explanation for each line

D-to create a number of opportunities for the learners to use the language meaningfully

  1. When young learners are taught to improve their spelling and punctuation, they will-

A-nature their creativity           B-sharpen their listening skills

C-improve their accuracy               D-enhance their fluency

  1. In order to improve the learners’ pronunciation, a teacher first needs to-

A-use recorded model of sounds

B-show the documentary films of the target language

C-ask them to read more

D-do pronunciation drill

  1. Language acquisitions means-

A-knowing about a language

B-an unconscious process that occurs when language is used in real conversation

C-learning the rules of a language

D-formal way of learning a language

  1. Which one of the following is not a language component?

A-Vocabulary                             B-Structure

C-Sound                                  D-Script

  1. According to the Constitution of India, English is a/an-

A-Official language                       B-link language

C-Window language                      D-Associate-official language

  1. The process of second language acquisitions is influenced by language that the learner already knows, the influence is —-

A-inter-language                         B-systemic errors

C-language transfer                       D-phonology

  1. A short text is read aloud and then students visualize what the passage describes. Then they tell the teacher about their visualization, or draw a picture. The activity assesses students’-

A-speaking with clarity                    B-listening comprehension

C-ability to draw well                      D-accuracy in interpretation

  1. Guided reading is preferable only when the learners-

A-Have some basic knowledge of the spoken language

B-are familiar with the alphabet

C-are socialized

D-start coming to school

  1. In learning a new language, multilingualism is-

A-a burden                                B-a methodology

C-an asset                                D-an interference

Techniques and tools of evaluation

  1. Need of tools and techniques of evaluation

Tools and techniques are required to gather information. (Tools – Techniques -Tools a techniques – valid – reliable.

Evaluation  & Numirical scores –  grades

Tools – techniques of evaluation  scholastic  non-scholastics aspects Three levels of learner’s attainments

Learner’s ds attainments – three levels –

  • First is with reference to the learner himself and the current status of progress.
  • The second level is to identify the status of the learner with reference to his group.
  • The third level means to the criteria.
  1. Meaning:- Tools and techniques means scientific way to evaluate or measure the attainments of a learner (tools – techniques learner
  2. Merits of tools and techniques:-
  • Validity
  • Fairness
  • Speed
  • Reliability
  • Releuance
  • Discrimination
  • Objectivity
  • Balance
  • Type of Tools techniques

– three are two types techniques and tools of evaluation

                                          Type of tools &techniques

Specific Tools                                                                               General Tools

  1. Anecdotal Record (1)        Observation
  2. Rating scale (2)        Projects
  3. Aptitude (3)        Questions
  4. Inventories (4)        Portfolis
  5. Teacher made and standarised (5)        Checklist

6)         Narrative Records

7)         Photographs

8)         Paintings and artistic endeavour

9)         Videos

10)       Essays

11)       Essays

12)       Oral tests

13)       Self assessment sheet

14)       Peer assessment sheet

15)       Student reporting parers feedback form

16)       Conversation

17)       Examination-test, Quizzes

18)       Narrative Reports

  1. Specific Tools
  2. Anecdotal Record:-
  • An anecdotal record is the observed behavior of a learner.
  • It is a record of some significant item of conduct
  • It is a record of an episode in the life of the student.
  • It is a word picture of the student in action.
  • It is a running cumulative description of actual examples of behavior as observed by teachers
  • It is used to assess past behavior of the students (very most important)

Rating scale:-

  • Meaning of Rating scale
  • Rating means the judgement of one person by another.
  • Rating is a term applied to expression of opinion regarding situation, objects of character.
  • Opinions are usually expressed on a scale
  • It is a technique by which judgements me by quantified.
  • It is a technique by which the teacher systematize the expression of opinions concerning a trait
  • It is done by Parents, teachers and judges

 (B)      Use of Rating scale

  • It is used to provide acomparative record of the learner’s level of achievement.
  • It is used to classify opinions and judgeements regarding situations, objects and character.

 (C)      Characteristics of Rating scale

            (a) Description of the characteristics to be-rated.

            (b) Soone methods by which the quality, frequency or importance of each item to be rated may be given.

  1. Aptitude test –

(a) Use:- It is used to measure the potential performance and special ability of students

4, Inventories

  • Use of inventories:-

They are used to assess the expression of the inner feelings of individuals through question naires.

  • Teacher made & standarised test
  • Use – It is used to measure the attainments of the students in various school subjects.
  1. General Tools and teachinques-

The followings are the general tools and techniques of evaluation

  1. Observation
  • Observation is a technique of evoluation
  • It is a technique by which the teacher can be collected in formation about the learner in his natual setting

Advantage of Observation

  1. It helps to assess the various aspect of personality development
  2. It can be used for bath individuals and groups
  3. It can be used at varying time periods.
  4. Imformations about child’s Knowledge is based on an on the spot record
  5. It is a cheap technique-
  6. Projects
  • Projects are used over a period
  • Projects are collection and analysis of data.
  • Projects are useful for theme based task.
  • Projects can be used for both individuals and groups
  • Projects should be based on contexts outside the text books.
  • Projects should be related to child’s environment, culture, lifestyle and social programs.

Advantages of projects

  • It provides the opportunities to explore.
  • It provides the opportunities to word with own hands.
  • It collects data and interpret data
  • It provides the opportunities to work in group
  • It provides the opportunities to work in real life situation
  • It helps to develop a positive attitude towards group work

Projects

  1. Questions
  • Meaning:- A question is an excellent way to find out what children know, think, imagine and feel.
  • Characteristics of a good question-

The following are the characteristics of a good question

  • Objective based:- It should be based on preplanned objectives
  • Instruction:- It should be given specific instruction for specific task in simple language.
  • Scope:- It should indicate the limit of the answer
  • Conent:- The question should be tested intended area.
  • Form of question:- The form of question should be according objectives.
  • Language:- It should be in clear language.
  • Difficulty level:- It should be according the level of learner
  • Discriminating power:- It should have the power have the power to discriminate between dull andinteliqent student.
  1.    Supply type question
  • Supply type question are also called freeresponse question.
  • This type question asked the student to supply the answer.
  • Supply T.Q. – Free response T.Q.
  • Learner answer supply
  • Type of supply T.Q. :- supply type question are dinided in four categories
  • Easy
  • Short answer
  • Very short answer
  • Fill in the blanks
  1.     Essay T.Q. – It provides the freedom of response freely.
  • Chaaract eristics/merits of essay T.Q.
  1. To select the relevant facts about the learner
  2. To identify and also establish relation ship between various aspects of knowledge
  3. To interpret the facts and information
  4. To adopt anindigenous approach to solve a given problem.

Given problem

Note:- Essay T.Q. usually begin with such term as discuss, explain, evaluate, define compare, contrast, describe.

(B) Demerits of esay T.Q.

  1. Lack of objectivity
  2. Lack of reliability

(3)        Short answer T.Q.

            (a) Characteristics:-

  1. It can be used for both unit and term test.
  2. It can be used to test all the objectives of teaching
  3. It develop the ability of organizing and selecting relevant facts.
  4. It helps to vover more syllabus.
  5. It improves the validity of question paper

Very short answer question

  • Characteristics
  1. Such type question are used to test one specific point
  2. These question help to test more content
  • These question are more valid and reliable than essay T.Q.
  1. These question test the knowledge by asking the learner to supply a word, phrase for answering the question.
  2. It can be answered in one word to one sentence
  3. These question takes short time.
  • These question can be used to test all school subjects.
  • Type of very short answer question
  • Completion type:- I was so worried ………….
  • Analogy type- Lime stone : Marbel coal
  • Location type – Show on the map Delhi – jaipur

Note:& 1. Map skill test – location type question

2-  expression ability test-compretion type question

Pictorical type question

This type question are based on picture.

Interpretive type

This type questions are based on a table which consists of some data by which a question is asked to a learner.

7-     Filling in the blanks type Question

In this type questions statements is given and one or two words are removed at different places. The student asked to fill these places.

  1. Selection type

In these type of questions students are supposed to answer them by selecting the correct answer among the provided choises.

  • Checklist

It is a technique of evaluation

  1. Advantage of Checklist
  1. It is easy & quick.
  2. Provides specific information about specific objectives.
  • It helps the teacher how & when skills have been acquired by the child as well as a group of children.

Checklist

  1. Disadvantage of checklist
  1. It provides limited information.
  2. It does not indicate child’s response to different situation.
  • It does not provide information about the context.
  1. Portfolio
    1. Meaning of portfolio
  2. It is collection of student’s word our a period of time
  3. It could be day to day work or selection of the student’s best piece of work.
    1. Advantage of portfolio
  4. It provides cumulative record
  5. It enables the student to demonsterate to others.
  • It make the child active participant in learning and assessment.
  1. Narrative record
  2. Meaning of Narrative record – It is a written record of learner’s experiences. Narrative record

Advantage of Narrative record

  1. It provides opportunities to describe every aspects of learner’s life.
  2. It is used make cumulative record

¼7½ a   Photographs

  1. Meaning of Photographs
  • Photograph is a documentation of a learner’s experiences.

Advantage of Photographs

  1. It provides accurate recall of events.
  2. It provides an insight into children’s ways of thinking and interacting.
  • It facilitates sharing of information with families.
  1. It provides an insight into the chids’s emotional, social and psychological aspects of development.

8-         Paintings

It Provides learner’s abilities, thoughts & attitudes paintings

9-     Videos

            It provides documentation of a learner’s experiences, while they are engaged

with a project.

  1. It allows language and the way of doing with accuracy
  2. Movement and sound add to the understanding of the events taking place.
  • It helps to understand student’s explanation.
  •      Video
  • Disadvantage of video
  1. It is expensive
  2. It is time consuming tool
  3. Essay- essays are useful to test learner’s abilities of expression and writing.
  4. Interviews & oral Tests
  5. Interviews & Oral Test are simple & easy technique of evolution
  6. Advantage of Interviews & Oral Tests
  7. Both allow the learner to participate in the learning assessment process.
  8. Both can test abilities like pronounciation, intonation, accent.
  9. Disadvantage of Interviews & oral Tests
  10. Both can not test writing ability of expression ability
  11. Both are time consuming techniques
  12. Self Assessment Sheets- It can be incorporated into the learner’s Portfolio to provide of the learner’s self evaluation.
  13. Peer Assessment Sheets
  14. It is an excellent technique for accessing in group based activities, social projects.
  15. Students Reporting Papers-
    1. Advantage
  • It is an excellent technique for getting feedback from the student on the school
  • It is an excellent technique to know the learner’s attitudes to particular respect of their education.
  1. Conversation
  2. It helps the teacher to know what & how the learner’s thinks, knows & imagines.
  3. It helps to test listening & speaking skills.
  • Conversation
  1. Conversation Examination Text Quizzes – These all are old & traditional techniques to test the knowledge of the students
  2. Narrative reports – It provides a more comprehensive report about the learner’s behavior

Narrative reports

Concept of comprehensive and Continuous Evaluation

“Evaluation is very necessary for teaching learning process”

  • The concept of comprehensive and continuous evaluation has been developed by Dr. B. & Bloom. Dr. B. s. Bloom. The famous educatimist of Chicago.

“Evaluation is new technical term introduced to design a more comprehensive concept of measerement than is applied both test and exam. Both in test and exam emphasis is upon single aspect of subject matter achievement of specifio skills and abilities, but the emphasis in evaluation is upon the broader personality changes and major activities of educational programme these includes interest-attitudes, ways of thinking working habits and personal and social adaptability”

According Dr. B.S. Bloom.

“Evaluation is a social and psychological activity. It is practical which every person applies whether he is buying commodities from the market, read and writing a book enjoying a cinema, meeting people to play various social activities. Individually we also eualuate our behavior.

  • Why do we need evaluation:-

We need evaluation to know the attainments of a learner in various fields such as his academic, social attainments.

  • Why does evaluation introduce – The main aim of CCE is to evaluate every aspect of the child during their presence at the school. The CCE method is claimed to bring enormous changes from the traditional chalk and talk method of teaching
  • Aim & objectives
  • To help develop cognitive, psychomotor and effective skills
  • To lay emphasis on thought process and deemphasis on memorization
  • To make evaluation an integral part of teaching
  • To use evaluation for improvement of students achievements and teaching learning strategies on the basis of regular diagnosis followed by remedial instruction
  • To use evaluation as quality control device to maintain desired standard of performance
  • To determine social utility, desirability or effectiveness of programme and take appropriate decisions about the learner the process of learning and the learning environment
  • To make the process of teaching and learning a learner centered activity
  • To offer opportunities for learning
  • To identity and to clarify the educational objectives
  • To reform the old education system
  • To assess around development of a learner.
  • Test of form of evaluation

There are two different types tests, namely formative and summative

  • Formative test or form:- The formative test will comprise the students work at class and home. In the formative test of form the students attainment will measure with the help of following sources
  1. Oral tests
  2. Quizzes
  • Quality projects
  1. Assignments

The formative tests will be conducted four times in a academic session and they will carry a 40% weightage for the aggregate.

Characteristics of formative test of form

  • It covers all the curriculum and all the syllabus
  • It covers the aim and objectives of education and teaching
  • It is based upon minimum level of learning
  • It goes on the parrel of teaching process.
  • Summative form or test

The summative assessment is a three-hour long written test conducted twice in a year the first summative assessment will be conducted after the two formative are completed. The second summative will be conducted after the two formatives. Each summative will carry 30% weightage and both together will carry a 60% weightage for the aggregate. The summative assessment will be conducted schools itself.

The scope of evaluation

There are three scopes of CCE according CBSE.

  1. Cognitive domain ¼laKkuewyd dk;Z{ks=½

It deals with the mental development of the learner. It has six steps to develop the head of the students

  • knowledge
  • comprehension
  • Application
  • Analysis
  • Synthesis
  • Eualuation
  1. Psychomotor Domain

It deals with the physical and manual development of the students. It has six steps to develop the hand and health of the students

  1. Perception
  2. Imitation
  • Manipulation
  1. Precision
  2. Articulation
  3. Naturalization
  4. Affective Domain

It deals with emotional and character development of a students. It has six steps to develop the heart of the students

  1. Exposition
  2. Valuing
  • Organization
  1. Characterizations
  2. Receiving
  3. Responding

The features of CCE

  • The continouns aspect of CCE takes care of continual and periodicity aspect of evaluation.
  • Continual means assessment of the students in the beginning of instruction and assessment of the students during the instructional process. Using multiple techniques of evaluation
  • Periodicity means assessment of performance done frequently at the end of unit
  • The comprehensive component of CCE takes care of assessments of all round development of the child’s personality
  • It includes scholastic as well as co-scholastic aspects of the pupils growth
  • The scholastic aspects include curricular areas and subject specific areas
  • The co-scholastic aspects include following areas
  • Life skills
  • Co-curricular activities
  • Attitudes
  • Values
  • The evaluation of scholastic areas is done informally and formally using multiple techniques of evaluation. The diagnostic test take place at the end of unit. The causes of poor performance in some units are diagrosed using diagrosti test
  • The evaluation of co-scholastic areas is done using multiple techniques on the basis of identified criteria.
  • The evaluation of life skills is done on the basis of indicators of assessment and checklist

The functions of CCE

  • It help the teacher to organize effective teaching strategies
  • It helps in regular assessment of learner’s progress in scholastic aspects as well as co-scholastic aspects
  • It enables the students to know their strengths and weakness
  • It identifies areas of aptitude and interest
  • It helps in identifying change in attitudes
  • It helps in predicting the future success of the learners
  • It helps in making decisions for the future, regarding choice of subjects, courses and careers.

Exercise

  1. Why to techniques and tools require?

A-to gather information                 B-to interpret ate

C-to give grade                           D-None of these

  1. Technique and tools should be ……….

A-valid, reliable-usable                  B-Expressive, cheap

C-Rapid-Balance-variely          D-All of these

  1. The interpretation of gathered information needs to given-

A-Numerical scores and grade B-Grades test

C-only grades                             D-Only scores

  1. The judgment should be based on……….

A-scholastic aspects                      B-Non-scholastic aspect

C-Both 1 and 2                            D-None of these

  1. In hour many levels the attainment of a learner can be measured?

A-Three levels                            B-Two levels

C-Only one                                D-Four levels

  1. Which technique and tool is used to assess past behavior of a learner?

A-Project                                  B-Rating scale

C-Aptitude                         D-Anecdotal record

  1. The technique which is used to classify opinions ans judgments regarding situations objects?

A-Rating  scale                           B-Aptitude

C-Anecdotal Record                      D-None of these

  1. What kind of technique is used to measure the potential performance and special ability of students?

A-Aptitude                                B-observation

C-Inventories                              D-Rating scale

  1. To evaluate reading comprehension at class III level students may be asked to-

A-take a short dictation of what they have read

B-write a diary based on one of the characters

C-use a set of indentified vocabulary on their own

D-retell a story in their own words or to summarize the main idea or the moral of the story

  1. An exercise, where words are left out of a shorter passage, and the pupil must fill in the blanks with suitable words based on her reading, assesses her ability to-

A-use new words                 B-summarize

C-spell words                             D-comprehend

  1. Read the following exchange-

Speaker 1 : Have you been to Indore?

Speaker 2 : Who

Speaker 1 To Indore, in Madhya Pradesh.

Speaker 2 : Umm….. I am Not sure ……..

During the assessment of students’ speaking skill, mark (s) would be deducted during this exchange for-

A-the second speaker                     B-both of them

C-the first speaker                        D-None of them

  1. For evaluating a poster designed as a part of a competition, which of the following criteria would be the most appropriate for the judges?

A-Use of quotations, style and visual appeal

B-Creativity, relevant content and visual appeal

C-Creativity, fonts and visual appeal

D-Relevant content, style and word limit

  1. Criteria of assessment is a/an-/

A-scoring key

B-question-wise distribution of marks

C-general impression of a student’s ability

D-assessment guideline

  1. The most effective tool to assess values and attitude of learners is-

A-Portfolio                                 B-Unit Test

C-Summative Test                       D-Anecdotal Record

  1. Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation should be adopted by all school because-

A-traditional pen-paper tests do not assess and enhance all the attributes and abilities of learners

B-it frees thee learners from studies and hard work

C-it affords teachers opportunities to test learners frequently

D-it is the latest development in the field of education

  1. The main purpose of assessment is-

A-to give practice in writing

B-to improve the teaching-learning process

C-to decide pass and fail

D-to measure achievement of learners

  1. Comprehensive Evaluation refers to assessment of-

A-summative assessment tests

B-co-curricular activities

C-academic subjects

D-both scholastic and co-scholastic areas

  1. Why do techniques and tools require?

A-To gather information                B-To interpret ate

C-To give grade                           D-None of these

  1. Techniques and tools should be………

A-valid, reliable -usable         B-Expensive, cheap

C-Rapid –Balance -variely                D-All of these

  1. The interpretation of gathered information needs to given

A-Numerical scores and grades        B-Grades – Test

C-Only quads                             D-Only scores

  1. The judgment should be based on ………

A-Scholastic aspects                      B-Non – scholastic aspect

C-Both a and b                           D-None of these

  1. In how many levels the attainment of a learner can be measured?

A-Three levels                            B-Two scale

C-Only one                                D-Four Levels

  1. Which technique and tool is used to assess past behavior of a learner?

A-Project                                  B-Rating scale

C-Aptitude                         D-Anecdotal record

  1. The technique which is used to classify opinions and judgments regarding situations, objects?

A-Raring scale                           B-Aptitude

C-Anecdotal Record                      D-None of these

  1. What kind of technique is used to measure the potential performance and special ability of students?

A-Aptitude                                B-Observation

C-Inventories                              D-Rating scale

  1. In which technique of exaluation the expression of the inner feelings of individuals through questionnaires are tested?

A-inventories                             B-Aptitude

C-Rating scale                            D-portfolio

  1. The teacher made and standardized tests are used to measure-

A-The attainments of the students in various school subjects

B-the potential and special performance of the students

C-To classify opinionsand judgment

D-To assess the past behavior of the students

  1. What do techniques of eulauation consist for measeering growth in particular out comes of learning.

A-Tests                                    B-Tools

C-Homework                             D-Questions

  1. Where can information can be best collected about children?

A-In natural settings                     B-In classroom settings

C-In playground settings          D-None of these

  1. Various aspects of the personality development can be assessed thought……

A-Observation                            B-Projects

C-Check list                               D-Questions

  1. The advantages of observation me ……..

A-It can be assessed various aspects of personality

B-It can be assessed individual as well as groups.

C-Both 1 and 2

D-Only 1

  1. ———- are useful in theme based tasks to be completed as class work.

A-Projects                                B-check lists

C-Questions                               D-Photographs

  1. The technique which involve collection and analysis of data?

A-Projects                                B- Portfolio

C- Narrative records                      D- Photographs

  1. What should be based on contexts outside the textbooks?

A-Uedios                                  B-Paintings

C-Rating scale                            D-Projects

  1. The projects should be related to ………..

A-The childs enuironment, culture and life style

B-The childs past behavior

C-The childs experiences

D-All of these

  • Origin of the word Remedial ¼jhesfM;y “kCn dh mRifr½ :- In 1645-55 Latin ‘Remedialis’
  • Meaning:- “Intended to correct or improve one’s skill in a specific field.
  1. Remedial teaching has great importance for weak students in language because they do not able to pace with average students and intelligent students. There must be separate arrangement for the remedial teaching for the weaker students in the teaching learning process of English language.
  2. Remedial teaching is a process by which the students are given extra class as or instruction so that they may accompany with intelligent students.
  • The students may find following types of problems in learning foreign language.
  • Lack of motivation
  • Poor comprehensive power
  • Poor or weak memory
  • Students have short assignments span
  • Slove in competing task/assignments.
  • Lack of self confidence
  • Having low expectation
  • Unability to grasp knowledge and information
  • Unability to understand new and abstract concepts.
  • Unable to like the knowledge of different subjects
  • Different mental levels and styles of learning

  • The main purpose of Remedial Teaching English
    • To develop language skills-

The main purpose of Remedial Teaching English is to develop language skills. There are four initial language skills-

  1. Listining or Hearing
  2. Speaking
  • Reading
  1. Writing
    • To provide learning aid to Pupils-

Each students has individual differences of learning ability, academic standards, classroom learning and academic performance so ‘Remedial teaching English provides teaching aid to overcome these difficulties.

  • To develop Generic Skills

The main purpose of Remedial teaching English is to develop generic skills.

The following are generic skills.

  • Interpersonal relation skills.
  • Problem solving
  • Self management
  • Self learning
  • Independent thinking
  • Creativity and the use of information technology
  • Linguistic items of Remedial Teaching English

The remedial teaching may include the difficult areas of the following linguistic items.

  1. Vocabulary ¼”kCndks’k½ Lexical Items ¼”kkfCnd½
  2. Grammar ¼O;kdj.k½ Structures ¼lajpuk½ and usages ¼iz;ksx½
  • Comprehension passage ¼cks/kkRed ys[kka”k½
  1. Composition ¼ys[ku½
  • Prerequisities ¼iwoZis{kk,a½ of Remedial teaching

The following are the prerequisities of Remedial teaching.

  • It should be started from the level of weak students.
  • It should be select the area of difficulties of the subject matter.
  • There should be continuity of awareness of academic progress of the students in remedial teaching.
  • Teaching objective should be achieved.
  • Do not call them backward.
  • Diversified material should be given for exercises.
  • Process of Remedial Teaching

In the process of Remedial teaching the teacher should follow the following steps to make it fruitful.

  • The remedial teaching should follow just after the diagnostic test.
  • Remedial teaching should be organized to remove the difficulties of the weaker students in study.
  • The teacher should make analysis of the student’s difficulties. This analysis of the students will help the teacher to improve the learning abilities of the poor students. The analysis should be based on the following points.
  • Learning needs of the students.
  • Learning abilities.
  • Learning interest.
  • Learning style of the learners.
  • Teaching objectives should be planed out. ¼fVfpax m)s”;ksa dk fu/kkZj.k djuk½
  • The teacher should decide the curriculum.
  • The teacher should organize teaching aids.
  • In the leading process the teacher should teach individually and in group.
  • After teaching the teacher should evaluate the students.
  • Types of Remedial Teaching
  • Remedial teaching without diagnostic test.
  • Remedial teaching just after diagnostic test.
  • Remedial teaching for the whole class.
  • Remedial teaching for individual.
  • Remedial teaching for group.
  • Principles of Remedial teaching

The principles of remedial teaching may points out as follow.

  • Teaching Preparation- Before preparing teaching less for weak students the teacher should indentify students varied learning needs so that he may design appropriate plans for effective teaching.
  • Preparing Meaningful learning situation- The remedial teacher should create meaningful learning situation to weak students. He can do this by using following steps.
  • By providing language games and activities.
  • By sharing personal learning experiences.
  • By stimulate ¼mRlkfgr djds½ the student’s interest.
  • By initiative ¼usr`Ro djds½ in learning.
  • Devise various learning activities- Since the students have different characteristics of learning the teacher must devise various activities with the same teaching activities to develop the learning abilities and skills in the students. The teacher should adopt a series of relevant simple activities than a long activity.
  • Provide clear instruction- The weak students are less competent (able) in understanding written language. Therefore thee teacher should give clear instruction.
  • Suitable teaching approaches- The teacher should teach new concepts of different perspective by various approaches so that the student may grasp ideas and thoughts easily.
  • Enhance learning interest and motivation-

The teacher should enhance the interest and motivation of students he can do this by using following steps.

  • By using information technology
  • Bu using various teaching aids.
  • By using reward and award.
  • Summarize the main points- The teacher should always summarize main points during teaching.

The teacher should write key word and pharse on the board so that he enhance the audio and usual memories of the students.

  • Encourage active participation in classroom activities- The weak students are often passive in classroom activity because they have lack of self confidence so the teacher should a encourage the students active participation in class-room activity.
  • Individual pupils attention- The teacher should observe the learning process of individual pupils in calls whenever they need individual remedial provide personal remedial to them.

Exercise

  1. An activity that requires a class to design and present a Power Point on the importance of water conservation in a target language is a ………. Activity.

A-science project                 B-group

C-language practice                     D-multidisciplinary

  1. To enable students to distinguish between academic and spoken forms of a target language in a bilingual class, they should be encouraged to-

A-read more books written in the target language

B-write more in the target language.

C-watch more related bilingual films

D-speak in the target language

  1. Providing learning support to pupils who lag far behind their counterparts in school performance includes-

A-providing extra notes and coaching

B-allowing them to complete assignments without time limits

C-initially adapting school curricula and teaching strategies

D-giving more activites for language practice

  1. A foreign/non-mother tongue language teacher often faces the problem of a class full of reluctant, unmotivated learners. This can be helped by-

A-taking the help of an academic counselor who will address the class

B-identifying the student who are ‘unmotivated’ and taking a special class for them

C-encouraging learners to take their own time to complete assignments

D-using methods and strategies to motivate and make learning more challenging in the class

  1. Remedial teaching involves-

A-teaching and testing                    B-testing continuously

C-teaching, testing and reteaching    D-teaching difficult topic

  1. Remedial teaching refers to teaching-

A-to help bright learners to excel      B-to test learners periodically

C-to address gaps in learning             D-after the regular school hours

  1. The term ‘Remedial’ have been taken from.

A-Latin                                    B-Greek

C-French                                  D-None of these

  1. What is the meaning of the word ‘Remedial’.

A-Intended to correct                    B-increase wisdom

C-Incorrect                                D-None of these

  1. What is the main the purpose of ‘Remedial Teaching’.

A-To develop language skills           B-To develop oral skill

C-To develop personality         D-To develop writing skill

  1. Which one is not correct statement about the Prerequisities of remedial teaching.

A-It should be started from the level of weak students.

B-It should be select the area of difficulties of the subject matter

C-There should be continuity of awareness of academic progress of the students in remedial teaching.

D-It should be stared from the level of intelligent students.

  1. What should teacher do to create interest in learning.

A-Use information technology          B-Use standard syllabus

C-Use new device                        D-None of these

  1. Remedial teaching refers to teaching-

A-To test learners periodically    B-To address gap in learning

C-after the regular school hours  D-To help bright learners to excel

CTET /TET       PEDAGOGY OBJECTIVE

Q.1 Language is not.

            (a) Instinctive                                                               (b) Social

            (c) arbitrary                                                                  (d) symbolic

Q.2      The most important aspect of an effective language classroom is to provide learners with an opportunity to.

            (a) Interact                                                                   (b) interfere

            (c) assess                                                                                 (d) imitate

Q.3      A word with same spelling and same pronunciation as another but with a different meaning is a/an

            (a) homonym                                                               (b) homophone

            (c) antonym                                                                 (d) synonym

Q.4      When learner give feedback on each other’s language work learning strategies, performance etc. it is called.

            (a) Formal assessment                                                  (b) group assessment

            (c) self-assessment                                                       (d) peer assessment

Q.5      The use of dictionary does not help learners to

            (1) find out how to say a word

            (2) be proficient in oral communication

            (3) find the meaning of words

(4) check the part of speech of a word

Q.6      Constructivism in language learning focuses on.

            (1) the dominate role of the teacher in the classroom

            (2) engaging learners in exploring new knowledge

            (3) the role of imitation

            (4) memosing grammar rules

Q.7      The major objective of teaching English at primary level is.

            (1) using English in different situations of life

            (2) speaking English in British accent

            (3) scoring good marks in the exams

            (4) knowing the grammar of English

Q.8      In learning a language, students talking time should be increased because

            (1) They use the target langue’s of various purposes

            (2) teacher feel relaxed while student are taking

            (3) they enjoy spending time talking with their friends

            (4) they can learn the correct pronunciation from each other

Q.9      A teacher of class V is planning to teach grammar. Which one of the following might be a good strategy for teaching grammar ?

            (1) Giving the practice of grammar in context as a strategy

            (2) Asking student to carefully note down the rules from the

     blackboard.

(3) Giving clear explanations of the rules with examples

(4) Asking students to do drill work only to learn rules.

Q.10    Which one of the following is not true in relation to the use of children literature ?

            (1) it makes them understand and respect diverse culture

            (2) Their reading proficiency deteriorate and gets worse

            (3) It helps in developing learner’s imagination

            (4) it broadens their mental horizon

Q.11    While assessing a group work, a teacher should not focus on

            (1) Showing concern for other

            (2) Cooperative learning process

            (3) assessing each child’s work

            (4) taking natives in work

Q.12    A diagnostic test in English will help the language teacher to identify.

            (1) intelligent learners in her class

            (2) slow learners in her class

            (3) learning difficulties the learner faces in English

            (4) The topic which the learner has not learnt by heart

Q.13    While teaching English a teacher is not able to draw attention of some student sitting at the back. she should

            (1) Engage them by asking question and evaluating her teaching

method

(2) stop explaining the concept and start dictating the notes to

students.

            (3) scold them for not paying attention

            (4) ignore them and carry on

Q.14    When a child learns a language naturally without much practice, it is called

            (1) language genelisation

            (2) language adaption

            (3) language learning

            (4) language acquisition

Q.15    The communicative approach to teach English focuses on

            (1) the structural accuracy of the sentences

            (2) correct pronunciation of words

            (3) linguistic competence plus an ability to use the language

      appropriately

(4) the practice of selected and graded structure patterns.

Q.15    Which one of the following is most important in developing

reading skill at primary level ?

(1) Ability to read phrases correctly

(2) Ability to comprehend the text already read

(3) Only knowing the correct order of alphabet

(4) Ability to read words correctly

Q.16    While reading a learn needs to

            (1) Guess the contextual meaning of new words to understand the

                    text

            (2) Translate the written symbols into corresponding sounds to

                    grasp their meaning

            (3) Perceive and decode letters in order to read words

            (4) understand every word to grasp the meaning of the text

Q.17    Diphthong are

            (1) consonant sound

            (2) double consonant sounds

            (3) vowel sounds

            (4) double vowel sounds

Q.18    Which of these  is not a cause of disorders ?

            (1) Socio-economic, emotional, environmental and education cause

            (2) Excessive use f toffees, chocolates and fast food

            (3) Poor model

            (4) Repression and over control by parents and teachers.

Q.19    Which of these is the goal of communicative approach ?

            (1) Appropriateness

            (2) Acceptable languages

            (3) Fluency

            (4) All the above

Q.20    In Present era English language teaching is facing.

            (1) Over emphasis on grammar

            (2) lack of language laboratory

            (3) teaching through translation

            (4) all of these

Q.21    Unit test is an expression of…….evaluation.

            (1) normative   (2) formative   (3) effective     (4) affective

Q.22    highly reliable text is

            (1) objective type         (2) essay type (3) true and false

            (4) None of these

Q.23    which of these is the strategy of remedial teaching ?

            (1) Action research      (2) Programmed test     (3) Both (a) and (d)

            (4) None of these

Q.24 the aim of remedial teaching is

            (1) to diagnose learning difficulties

            (2) to eliminate ineffective habits

            (3) reteach incorrectly learnt skills

            (4) (b) and (c)

Q.25 Which of the following is the highest leval of cognitive ability.

            (1) Knowing    (2) Understanding        (3) Evaluation  (4) Analyzing

Q.26    Why is story telling most important in an English language class at primary leval ?

            (1) It is uneful for developing intergrated language skils.

            (2) It develops moral values among the studends

            (3) It improves student vocabulary

            (4) It creates fun in the class

Q.27    A good teacher is one who.

            (1) Give them anple opportunities to learn

            (2) Give them useful information

            (3) Explains concepts and principles

            (4) gives printed notes to student

Q.28    Which of the following helps in learing the second language without usingthe printed text ?

            (1) Situations approach

            (2) Natural approach

            (3) Langugae immersion

            (4) Grammar-translation method

Q.29    A person, who is a fluent speaker is likely to possess.

            (1) Logico-mathematical ability

            (2) Bodily-kinesthetic ability

            (3) Musical ability

            (4) Verbal-Linguistic ability

Q.30    Which approach emphasizes. interaction as the means and the goal of learing of language.

            (1) Communicative      (2) Oral-aural   (3) Immersion  (4) Slient way

Q.31    Maximun participation of student’s during teaching in a language class room is possible through ?

(1) lecture method                               (2) translation method

(3) inductive method           (4) discussion and demonstration methods

Q.32    Dyslexia is an intellectual disability that negatively affects the understanding abilities in terns of.

            (1) orla language                      (2) sign language                      (3) dialect        (4) reading

Q.33    The Linguist, Noam Chomsky maintains that every child has an innate language acquisition device (LAD) that he/she uses for.

            (1) Phonemes                                                               (2) Universal Grammar

(3) Complex words                                                      (4) sementics

Q.34 The structural approach advocate.

            (1) resorting to fluency

            (2) selection and gradation of material

            (3) assessing learners performance using mother tongue

            (4) using mother tongue

Q.35    According So socio-cultureal theory of vygotsky

            (1) sel-directed speech is the lowest stage of the scaffolding

            (2) children can think in abstract terms if abstract material is provided at a

                lower age.

            (3) Children drink in different domain and do the take a complete perspective

            (4) culture helps in language development

Q.36    What is the main purpose of poetry recitation in a language classroom ?

            (1) To appreciate and enjoy the poem

            (2) To give their opinions about the poem

            (3) To become aware of the poet and her work

            (4) To know te historical background of the poem

Q.37    Who srongly maintains that language is learnt by imitation of stimuli and reinforcement of correct responeese ?

            (1) aibert Bandura                                                                    (2) Kurt Lewin

            (3) Tolman                                                                               (4) BF Skinner

Q.38    Under which activity do recognsing sounds and deducing meanings from them come ?

            (1) Speaking                                                                (2) Listening

            (3) Reading                                                                              (4) Writing

Q.39    During the process of language learning. student lack confidence in their pronunciation. How can one overcome this ?

            (1) Providing scope forspecial activies with the help of language experty

                former moving speaking defects.

            (2) Correction mistakes immediately

            (3) Reading aloud in the classroom

            (4) Organzing play like tasks in which children can talk to one another.

Q.40 Skilled reading is.

            (1) progressive             (2) deliberate   (3) Construtive             (4) imaginative

Q.41    Of the following which one is the most important pre-requisite for language learning whether first or second ?

            (1) A structurl –situational approach

            (2) Skills based instruction

            (3) A multi lingual approach

            (4) An input rich communication environment

Q.42 A Hindi speaking teacher gets posted in a primary school which is situated in a remote area of rajasthan. since she doesn’t knowthe local language she faces lots of problems she should.

            (1) try to get a posting a hindi-speaking area

            (2) focus on the textbook as a source of student hindi

            (3) use the child’s language as aresource while teaching

            (4) encouragethe community to learn standar hindi.

Q.43 While teaching children to read, at which point  should the teacher focus on comprehension ?

            (1) Whe children reach class II

            (2) After children have learnedhowto decode

            (3) Right fromthebeginning

            (4) Once children have mastered phonics

Q.44    Here is a list of tasks commonly included in a language classroom which of these sees children as active learners ?

            (1) Children work in group to generate interpretains of a poem.

            (2) Children carefull memorise correct answer to question on a poem.

            (3) Children write answere to question given at the end of a poem.

            (4) children carefully note down answere from the blackboard.

Q.45 The assessment of students writing should most importantly focus on.

            (1) Keeping to the word limit.

            (2) using idiomsand metaphors

            (3) correctspelling and grammar

            (4) expressions and ideas

Q.46    Children’s oral language development forms an important foundation for learning literacy. which of the following classroom practices enables oral language development.

            (1) memorizing and reciting poems individually or in a chorus.

            (2) Chorus reading of a story in the text book along with the teacher.

            (3) Practising the correct Pronuciation of words in a chorus.

            (4) Participating in role-plays on favourite stories.

Q.47    A teacher of class III realizes  that vocabulary development is an important factor in enabling student to become better readers. of the following, which might be a good strategty for vocabulary development ?

            (1) Student underline difficult words from a text and make sentences with

                them.

            (2) Student learn to use the contextto guess the meaning of new words.

            (3) Student memorise extensive word-lists of synonyoms and antonyms

            (4) Student consult a dictionary wherever they come across a new word.

Q.48 Mrs. sinha asks prediction question as she reads aloud a story to her class III student. she does this to.

            (1) Activate the previous knowledge of students

            (2) Activate the intellecutual stance of students

            (3) Activate enthusiasm in students

            (4) Activate the efferent stance in students

Q.49    Which one of the following would be the best evidence to demonstrate to parents and administrators what student can do with language ?

            (1) National curriculum and syllabi

            (2) Lists of course goals and objectives

            (3) Marks in a test

            (4) Poems or paragraphs written by students

Q.50    If a student is making pronunciation  errors the best way to help him/her is to.

            (1) Provide him/her with correct pronunciation without any humiliation.

            (2) call his/her parents and complain

            (3) scold him/her in class for incorrect pronunciation

            (4) moc at him/her in class for incorrect pronunciation.

Q.51    Scribbing is a stagh of.

            (1) Speaking                                                                (2) Listening

            (3) Writing                                                                               (4) reading

Q.52    A primary teacher should introduce reading through.

            (1) stories                                                                                 (2) picture books

            (3) alphabet books only                                                           (4) phonic teaching

Q.53    Choose the correct spelling.

            (1) Doesn’t’                                                                              (2) Doesn’t

            (3) Doesn’t                                                                               (4) Does’nt

Q.54 The teacher’s role is shifting from “sage on the stage” to guide on the side”

Technology intergration helps this process when.

(1) systems store more data and adminster tests individually to students

(2) students actively search for and explore answeres instead of receiving

      standard inputs.

(3) easy retrieval of large quantities of stored data is used to facilatls

      preparation of notes.

(4) assessment of students online inputs is doe quickly whthout supervisionat

     any time.

Q.55    Slow learners fail to grasp effectively and mix up words and structures easily. Teachers can remediate by beginning with.

            (1) setting drills for practice

            (2) pairing them with clever students

            (3) indentifying the areas of  difficulty

            (4) preparing a summary of the content

Q.56    For English as a second language ‘acquistions poor environment is one where.

            (1) Hindi/Mother tongue is the lingua franca

            (2) English language used only in the classroom

            (3) English is not spoken at home at all

            (4) access to any learning material is unavailable to students

Q57     At class II, sharing stories, familiar experiences at interests, employing gestures where appropriate is a sub-skill of ………..function.

            (1) reading                   (2) listerning    (3) speaking     (4) writing

Q.58    In the case of vocabulary use, grammar provides a pathway to learners to.

            (1) speak in formal situations with greater accuracy and confidence

            (2) re-tell listering inputes into oral output

            (3) combine lexical items into meaningful and communicative expression

            (4) draft formal pieces or writing in higher classes

Q.59    Selection of language items while determining the second language syllabus should take into account…..

            (1) The minimal disruption of school schedule

            (2) how easy it is to learn/use the item

            (3) how easy it is to teach the concept

            (4) the frequency and range of use of the items

Q.60    One of the sub skills that is assessed for speaking would be.

            (1) Understanding and responding in a paragraph to literary works.

            (2) using appropriate volume, clarity and gesturesh in individual or grup

                situations.

            (3) spelling common frequently used words correcrlt

            (4) Listening actively and responding to other in small and large grops

               situations.

 Q.61 Grammar gains its prominence in language teaching, particularly in English as a foreign language. Accracy in language use can be achived through.

            (1) intensive practice with sentence patterns

            (2) grammar is taught as the basis for all four language skills

            (3) reading more books written in the target language

            (4) integrating knowledge of structures with use and meaning

Q.62    “Some research has shown that developing students native language skils leads to higher scores academically over the long term in English.”

            A bilingual class would becharacterized by.

            (1) The use of student native language in the second language class

            (2) revision workdone in the native language.

            (3) more guided transition activities individual collaborative.

            (4) the re-formulartion of concepts, structure use in the native language.

Q.63    Motivation is an important factor in language learning for example in class VI……may be done.

            (1) memorization and use necessary vocabulary

            (2) systematic analysis and use of structures

            (3) use of visual deviceand game like exercises

            (4) use of the mother tongue as the medium

Q.64    Second language acquisition is more effective when it.

            (1) is used as the basis for discussing grammatical concepts

            (2) involves periodic revision work by the teacher and students

            (3) involves mostly self-study by student using certain guidelines

            (4) is practiced in situation famillar to students

Q.65    Among the four language skills, which pair constitutes the reinforcement skills

            (1) Reading and listning

            (2) speaking and listerning

            (3) Reading and speaking

            (4) Speaking and writing

Q.66    Students of class IV can recognize flawed usage of sentence construction when the teacher.

            (1) telis them something is wrong

(2) gives alternatives as possible corrections

(3) lets them find the corrections

(4) focuses on certain surface errors

Q.67    The teacher and student/s discuss a topic and the former starts the conversation by asking a question, then the student/s respond by giving examples and explanations. The speaking assessment here is to grade how well student.

            (1) speak fluently and creatively

            (2) process information and respond appropriately

            (3) expree themselves

            (4) respond in an appropriate tone and express themselves fiuently and

     accurately.

Q.68 While evaluating students response for a reading comprehension make may be deducted for……………errors.

(1) Grammatical                       (2) syntactical  (3) content       (4) spelling

Q.69    A text that reuires students to scan in order to understand and analyze the writer’s messagy and purpose could be.

(1) An encyclopedic extract                                         (2) a newspaper headine

(3) a set of instructions to assemble a device               (4) a poem

Q.70    While drafting  a notice students may be instructed to use language.

(1) direct                      (2) intrigue                   (3) descriptive (4) elaborate

Q.71    For evaluating a poster designed as a part of a competition, which of the following criteria would be the most appropriate for the judges ?

            (1) Relevant content, style and word limit

            (2) Use of quotations, style and visual appeal

            (3) Creativity, relevant content and visual appeal

            (4) Creativity fonts and visual appeal

Q.72    Learners lack confidence t speak in the target language in class where the main language of conversation is the local vernacular. This challenge can be met by.

            (1) allowing students to speak about whatever they can,  irrespective of the

     grammatical errors, enhance their vocabulary and gradually make corrections.

(2) Allowing students to watch English films as motivation, practice a drill consisting of useful sentences and vocabulary wit regular correction of grammatical errors.

(3) insisting on students using only the target language irrespective of the grammatical errors enhance their vocabulary with regular feedback on their performance.

(4) Instructing them to speak slowly and self correct grammatical errors. enhance their vocabulary with a list of useful words.

Q.73    In order to drive home the point that listerning skill matter, student should be.

(1) exposed to popular English films and reviewing tham

(2) taken to the language lab once a week for practice and feedback

(3) allowed to listen to CD’s of poetry read aloud by well-known vice-artistes

(4) reminded that listening skill practices relate to real life.

Q.74    Learing a new language after puberty leads to of a of a foreign language.

            (1) difficulty in acquisition                                          (2) normal acquisition

            (3) greater mastery                                                       (4) loss of mastery

Q.75    An activity that requires a class to design and present a power point on the importance of water conservation in a target language is a…….activity.

            (1) multidisciplinary                                                    (2) science project

            (3) group                                                                                  (4) language practice

Q.76    To enable students to distinguish between academic and spoken forms of a target language in a bilingual class, they should be eccouraged to.

            (1) speak in the target language            (2) read more books written in the target language

            (3) write more in the target language    (4) watch more related bilingual fims

Q.77 Providing learing support o pupils who lag far behind their counterparts in school performance  includes.

            (1) giving more activites for language practice

            (2) providing extra notes and coaching

            (3) allowing them to complet assignments without

            (4) initially adapting school curricula and teaching strategies.

Q.78    Enriching the curriculum for learners who are gifted and talented.

            (1) give them leadership roles class activities

            (2) increase complexity of curriculum for them to experience a wider variety of language and opportunies for creativity

            (3) promote them to a higher class so that they are exposed to a more difficult syllabus.

            (4) introduce a foreign language

Q.79    Indentify the false assumption. language coure-books prescribed for students should provid

            (1) detailed lesson-plans for teachers

            (2) suggested sequence of teaching procedures

            (3) balanced presentation of information

            (4) organized units of learing experiences

Q.80    Students who do not hanve the opportunities to use the target language outside the classroom, demonstrate much lower levels of language competency. This can be overcome by.

            (1) conduction tests periodically to motivate them to learn

            (2) giving them a set of commonly used sentences and vocabulary which they are expected to use.

            (3) setting separate tasks which are easier  with more time to complete them.

            (4) engaging them in specific language-focused tasks which are indirectly monitored by their group leaders.

Q.81    foreign/non-mother tongue language teacher often faces the problem of a class full or reluctant, unmotivated learners. this can be helped by.

            (1) using methods and strategies to motivate and make learning more challenging in the class.

            (2) taking the help of an academic counselor who will address the class.

            (3) identifying the student who are ‘unmotivated’ and taking a special class for them

            (4) encouraging leaners to take their own time to complete assignments.

Q.82    Language learners learn to do by doing. which activity supports this observation ?

            (1) Opportunities to practice as it helps with habit formation.

            (2) Encourage the use of their mother tongue to promote better understanding of the meaning of a prescribed text.

            (3) Go from concreate to abstract text

            (4) The teacher models the writing the writing and speaking styles which learner copy.

Q.83   A ‘Listening stimulus’

(1) Enables students to discuss a set of criteria which they prioritize to complete and present a task.

(2) not to have any problems

(3) need for struggles in life

(4) escape pain at any cost

Q.84    The ‘interactional routine’ during speaking assessment includes a.

            (1) comparing two or more objects/places/events for the assessor.

            (2) negotiating meanings taking turns and allowing other to take turns.

            (3) describing one’s school or its environs informally

            (4) telephone conversation with another

 Q.85 Retrieval skills in writing are.

            (1) Organzing informating while reading/listening

            (2) note making and note taking

            (3) diagramming and summarizing

            (4) abilities to do extensive reference work

Q.86    ‘Awareness raising’ grammar games encourage student to.

            (1) Use learnt structures to communicate with one another about a given theme

            (2) think consciously about the structures they have learnt

            (3) collaborate in completing a given activity

            (4) engage and feel about human relationships while the teacher controls the

     structures.

Q.87    Language  acquisition.

(1) Is a technique intended to simulate the environment in which children learn

     their native language.

(2) Is the memorizating and use of necessary vocabulary

(3) Involes a systematic approach to the analysis and comprehension of grammar

      as well as the the memorization of vocabulary.

(4) Refers to the process of learing a native or a second language because of the

     innate capacity of the human brain.

Q.88    Noah Chomsky’s  reference to’deep structures means a

            (1) Universal Grammar underyling all languages and corresponding to an innate

     capacity of the human brain.

(2) Hidden set of grammatical rules learnt through intensive study.

(3) Transformational grammar that has led in turn to increased interest in

     comparative linguites.

(4) A trend that  English is the most common auxiliary language in the world.

Q.89    The bottom up model of curriculum is one where.

            (1) A need- based distance education with indirect influence on students.

            (2) learning is based on a set of software to make curriculum more learner

     friendly.

(3) the curriculum that allows choice of curricular activity any encourages learing

      by doing.

(4) the learning process is geared towards career orientation.

Q.90    The humanistic Approach is specifically tuned to the.

            (1) process where sequence is taught along with how to present the related

                contents.

            (2) mastery of  academic disciplines with all their charactersitc features.

            (3) application of learnt structure, content, concepts, concepts and prinicipal to

                new situations.

            (4) processes that enable student to discover structures for themselves.

Q.91    A ‘special needs language classroom’ is ideally.

            (1) has extra teachers to the help regular teachers

            (2) exclusively furnished

            (3) located separately

            (4) integrates all types of learners

Q.92    One of the challenges of Behaviour Management in a senior class is

            (1) teacher’s lack of self confidence

            (2) student’s readiness to use the smart board

(3) student a lack of self study skills

(4) teacher preference to conduct group rather than individual work.

Q.93    To inculcate a ‘Never Give Up Attituude’a suitable activiry is the one when students.

            (1) Managed to get the Principal’s permission to go out and play during the

                English period.

            (2) sanga two popular songs and axhibited some of their art and craft works during the parent teacher meet.

            (3) Made modification to their paper plances and tested them again. experimented with the best way to get them to go the distance and shared their finding.

            (4) in groups created graphs about the difficult situations that students have had to face in life.

Q.94    Assessing reading at clss VII, can be done most effectively through a.

            (1) writing a 50 word book/text review as a small project.

            (2) spoken quiz based on the meanings of words and expressions.

            (3) written text based the characters and events in the story/text

(4) an oral interview to find out how much they have read.

Q.95 curriumlation development follows the following. sequence.

  • Formulation of objectives assessment of needs. evaluation of text/learing experiences.
  • Formulation of objectives assessment of needs selection of texts/learing experiences evaluation.
  • Selection of texts/learing experiences, assessment of needs formulation of objectives evaluation.
  • Assessment of needs formulation of objectives selection of texts/learing experiences, evaluation.

Q.96 The learning experiences that offer a vicarious experience to learners are.

            (1) field trips observations

            (2) real objects and speciments

            (3) abstract words case study

            (4) display boards film clips

Q.97    In computer Adied Instruction (CAI) the simulation mode is where learners

            (1) Get problems which are solved by a process for trial and error

            (2) Experiece real life systems and phenomena

            (3) receive bits of information followed by question with immediate feedback

            (4) a series o exercises with repetition practice

Q.98 I loved Ophelia forty thousand brother could not with all their quantity of love

          make up my sun.

            (1) imagery                  (2) personification                   (3) hyperbole   (4) allegory

Q.99    The homonym of ‘bier’ is

            (1) bear                        (2) beer                        (3) bare                        (4) bar

 Q.100 A  rhetorical question is asked.

            (1) to gather personal information

            (2) to clarify a concept

            (3) for the sake of effect with no answer needed

            (4) to get a feedback about what other think about your speech/writing.

Q.111  An example of linking adverbials is.

            (1) The (2) these           (3) so               (4) your

Q.112  Language acquisition.

            (1) requires the memorization and use of necessary vocabulary.

            (2) involves a systematic approach to the analysis and comprehension of grammar sas wll as to the memorization of vocabulary.

            (3) refers to the process because of the innate capacity of the human brain

            (4) is a technique intended to simulate the environment in which children learn their native language.

Q.113  according to NCF 2005, learning of English aims.

(1) to enable knowledge acquisition through literacy and its development into an instrument of abstract thought.

(2) to subsume the language that  a child acquires naturally from her/his home ans sociental environment.

(3) to introduce standaed sign language in English for children with language related impairments.

(4) to provide adequate facilities at the state level for instruction in English at the primary stage of education.

Q114   while listensing means a stage.

            (1) When student are listening for pleasure

            (2) when student are listensing to a recording of a natural conversation.

            (3) where the students attempt a listening taks

            (4) when a listensing activity is introduced.

Q.115  Student A and student B ask and answer question to complete a worksheet. This is.

            (1) an information transfer activity

            (2) a role play

            (3) an information  gap activity

            (4) a controlled interview

Q.116  Criteria of assessment is a/are

            (1) guidelines with making scheme

            (2) question wise distribution of marks

            (3) general impression of a students ability

            (4) scoring key

Q.117  In the word ‘scarce’ the phonetic transcription for ‘a’ is

            (1) /e/               (2) /ea/ (3) /ie/  (4) /ae/

Q.118  Notes can be made using a flowchart or a web diagram they study sikil involved is.

            (1) storing        (2) summarizing           (3) retrieving    (4) gathering

Q.119  The students make mistakes  while playing a grammar game. The teacher should (1) Call aside the erring student and offer some guidance

            (2) call aside the student incharge in the group and instruct him/her guide the student

            (3) quietly note down the mistakes and hold a remedial class for the ‘erring’ students.

            (4) quietly note down the mistakes and discuss them with the class after the activity.

Q.120  what is taught is not what is learnt because.

            (1) ateacher or learner can never fully master any discipline

            (2) student pay attention during informal discussion

            (3) a teacher’s socio-economic level may differ widely from the students

            (4) student possess different abilities personalites and come from a variety of backgrounds

Q.121  Learners and familiar with the concept ‘cyberspace’ due to their cognitive overload. Therefore, learners.

            (1) may end up studying more meaningful topics in class

            (2) may explore their own interest according to their own experience background and perspective while spending considerable time navigating for content

            (3) usually omit studying prescribed but important topics

            (4) may be exposed to a sequential and conhesive expository presentation.

Q.122  Constructivism is a theory where student.

            (1) study a variety of dissimilar samples and draw a well founded conclusion

            (2) form their own understanding and knowledge of the world, through experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences.

            (3) are facilitated by the teacher and use a variety of media to research and create their own theories

            (4) construct their own learing aids, thereby gaining hands-on experience.

Q.123  Remedial teaching.

            (1) fills the gap that creeps into a pupil’s learning

            (2) rectifies the concepts which have been misunderstood

            (3) helps in retaining homogeneity in the class

            (4) All of the above

Q.124  learing a language is a

            (1) Gradual process                             (2) fast process

            (3) instant process                                            (4) all inclusive process

Q.125  Study of meaning in a language is known as

            (1) syntax                    (2) semantics   (3) morphology            (4) linguistics

Q.126  Register is

            (a) variety of language according to region in a particular country

            (b) variety of language according to countries

            (c) Eiether (a) or (b)

            (d) Niether (a) nor (b)

Q.127  The main responsibility of a language teacher a a facilitator is.

            (1) to create a number of opportunities for the learners to use the language meaningfully

            (2) to provide a lot of information and make the learner listen to it

            (3) to strictly control the class and cover the syllabus in quick time

            (4) to read the lessons aloud and provide explanation for each line

Q.128  Wich of the following will help learners take greate responsibility for their own learing ?

            (1) Supervised reading sessions

            (2) Controlled writing tasks

            (3) Peer Assessment

            (4) Summative Assessment

Q.129  The main purpose of assessment is.

            (1) to measure achievement of learners

            (2) to give ractice in writing

            (3) to improve the teaching learing process

            (4) to decide pass and faill

Q.130  When young learners are taught to improve their spelling and punctuation they will

            (1) enhance their fluency                                                         (2) nurture their creativity

            (3) sharpen their listening skills                                   (4) improve their accuracy

  1. 131 Instead of asking questions and getting answere from her learners a teacher gives

some short text and asks her learners to frame question. her primary objective is to

(1) Take their help during examinations

(2) make the learnes realize the difficulties faced by teacher in preparing question papers.

(3) enhance the learners analytical and critical thinking.

(4) train the learners as good question paper setters.

  1. 132 Reading between the lines as a sub-skill of reading mainly involves.

            (1) understanding the stated facts

            (2) giving sufficient space between lines

            (3) inferring the unstated using the contextual and verbal clues

            (4) identiflying the grammatical item

  1. 133 Substitution table drill helps teachers in

            (1) only through written tests and assignments

            (2) if they are taught in an intergrated manner

            (3) with the help of challenging and mechanical language drills

            (4) when they are introduced in isolation, one skill at a time

Q.134  After reading a poem, a teacher involves the learners in group work. one group writes the summary of the poem, another draws a picture to depict the main theme and yet another sets the poem to music. This activity

            (1) is a sheer waste of time

            (2) caters to diverse abilities and interests

            (3) is aimed at preparing the learners for assement

(4) will distract the learners from the lesson

Q.135  Correct speech habit can be developed most effectively through.

            (1) Pronuciation practice                                              (2) vocabulary practice

            (3) quizzes                                                                   (4) dictations

Q.136  Under Constructivist Approach to language learning learners are encouraged to

            (1) didcover the rules of grammar from example

            (2) avoid errors completey

            (3) practice language drills mechanically

            (4) learn the grammar rules by rote

Q.137  Young learners will enjoy a play included in the text book when they.

            (1) listen to the teacher raading the play

            (2) enact the play

            (3) get detailed explanations about the play from the teacher

            (4) read the play silently

Q.138  When young learners are asked to read a text silently, they should be instructed.       (1) to stop reading whenever they encounter a difficult word or phrase

(2) to infer the meaning of new words from the context and read with comprehension

(3) to play special attention to grammar items used in the passage

(4) to read fast even if they don’t comprehend the meaning.

Q.139  Remedial teaching is a part of.

            (1) formavtive assessment                               (2) stummative assessment

            (3) class text                                                    (4) All of the above

Q.140  Conplete the following by selective correct alternative.

            fill the blanks with………………..words.

  • appropriate (2) appropriate             (3) appropriate (4) approprit

Q.141 The two areas of CCE are.

            (1) scholastic and curricular                 (2) scholastic and co-scholastic

            (3) curricular and situational                (4) situational and functional

Q.142  Choose the correct answer.

            What does a text book not provide ?

            (1) a syllabus for the course

            (2) Sets of visuals activities, readings

(3) Basis for assessing students learning

(4) sum al all the experiences tobe given at a particular age.

Q.143  To learn a new language the children should increase their.

            (1) overcome shyness              (2) develop confidence and interest

            (3) motivate to speak               (4) all of the above

Q.144  Comprehensive in CCE implies that

            (a) all the aspects of a child a personality have to be observed

            (b) scholastic aspects of a child’s personality have to be observed

            (c) non- scholastic aspects of a child’s personality have to be observed

            (d) student should be assessed regularly.

Q.145  In the process of teaching and learning, the text book is a.

            (1) resource book                    (2) instrument /tool                  (3) syllabus

            (4) All of these

Q.146  The two components of language are.

            (1) grammar and situation                                (2) words and situation

            (3) grammar and vocabulary                            (4) vocabulary and information

Q.147  ‘Continouse’ in CCE refers to.

            (1) regularity in assessment                              (2) constructive feed back

            (3) frequency of tasks                                                 (4) All of the above

Q.148  One of these is used for both male and female.

            (1) Parent                                                                     (2) Mother

            (3) Father                                                                     (4) Actor

Q149   Used for keeping light meal is called

            (1) Light box                                                    (2) Wooden

            (3) tiffin box                                                    (4) tool box

Q.150  According to NCF 2005, Evaluation should be taken as a.

            (1) hurdle/obstacle                                           (2) burden

            (3) meaning product                                        (4) meaningful process

Q.151  A teacher as per NCF 2005 is a.

            (1) boss                                                                        (2) leader

            (3) facilitator                                                    (4) friend

Q.152  The synonyms of ‘Barbarians’ is

            (1) Wild                                                                       (2) Clever

            (3) Bold                                                                       (4) Damage

Q.153  I hve not slept………………yesterday.

            (1) from                       (2) since                       (3) for              (4) to

Q.154  choose the correct alternative which best completes the sentence.

            Children can be encouraged to learn a new language.

  • by pointing out their mistakes
  • by correcting their mistakes
  • by providing ample opportunities for using the language
  • by teaching International phonetic alphabet

Q.155  Persons working together in an Office are called.

            (1) friends                                                                                (2) companions

(3) colleagues                                                              (4) All of these

Q.156  He is slow………………….he is sure.

            (1) nor             (2) also                        (3) and             (4) but

Q.157 Remedial teaching as part of formative Assessment means.

            (1) diagnosing and addressing gaps in learning

            (2) teaching beyond the textbooks

            (3) extra coaching by parents

            (4) teaching for gifted students

Q.158  Which of the following is a value associated with an inclusive classroom ?

            (1) Competition                                                           (2) Envy

            (3) Sympathy                                                   (4) Collaboration

Q.159  The aim of mechanical drills is to.

            (1) Strengthen the role learning capacity of the learners

            (2) encourage creative use of language among the learners.

            (3) inprove the fluency of the learners

            (4) improve the accuracy of the learners

Q.160  Learners are involved in individual  activities pair work, group work and whole-class work because these.

            (1) provide the learners enough opportunities to relax in a language  classroom.

            (2) have the sole aim of introducing variety in a language classroom.

            (3) enable to already over-worked teacher to preserve her energy thereby becoming more effective.

            (4) afford the learners opportunities to use the language in a focused manner for real-life interaction.

Q.161  Which of the following statements is ture ?

            (1) All formative tasks are meant for assessment

            (2) Formative assessment, to be effective must be conducted only after teaching a lesson.

            (3) While all formative tasks ar meant for improving teaching learing some ae used for assessment too.

            (4) Formative assessment helps us to grade students into good, average and poor.

Q.162  When young learner seem to lose interest in a leasson the teacher should.

            (1) tell a story or conduct an interesting activity

            (2) ask them to sit quietly for some time

            (3) allow them to go out and play

            (4) ask them to sleep for a while

Q.163  The right of children to free and compulsory Education Act, 2009 has included all round development of the child as one of the aims of education because.

            (1) it nurtures the physical, mental and emotional aspects of the child.

            (2) it ensures that every child is a part of a workforce

            (3) every child grows rapidly between six to fourteen years

            (4) proper health care is essential

Q.164  Teachers do not give the meaning of new words to learners directly because.

            (1) learners do not like to be given the meaning of words

            (2) it prevents learners from discovering the meaning through from discovering the meaning through puzzling out using clues

            (3) learners already know the meaning of the words

            (4) vocabulary will not be enriched.

Q.165 which of following is an instance of no –formal learning ?

             (1) children learning to cook from their parents.

             (2) children learning a new game from friends.

(3) children learning through correspondence lessons.

             (4) children learning to draw form their art teacher .

Q.166 group project work helps in developing

             (1)  a high level of ambition to achieve

            (2)  collaboration ,critical thinking and problem soving

            (3)  competition among learners to excel in academics

            (4)  good memory in the young learners

Q.167  What type of questions promote thinking skills in children ?

            (1) Factual questions

            (2) Questions based purely on reading text

            (3) Personal response questions

            (4) Closed ended questions

Q.168  Students need to brainstorm ideas, organize draft, edit and revise work, is a process which reflects.

            (1) Listening skills                                                       (2) speaking skills

(3) reading skills                                                                      (4) writing skills

Q.169  Teachers help learners ‘construct’ their knowledge in English by.

            (1) Giving the learners a lot of assignments and projects that will lead to much

     practice.

  • Correcting every mistake a learner makes and giving the relevant rule of gramma as immediate feedback.
  • Giving extensive language drulls in which learners practice language items mechanically
  • enabling them to see the relationship between the prior knowledge and the new knowledge.

Q.170  Reading for comprehension can be best achieved through.

            (1) teaching learners to run a finger or pencil under the line being read.

            (2) asking the children to read the text aloud

            (3) Helping learners speak words soffly while reading.

            (4) learners reading silently and asking comprehension question.

Q.171  A textbook describes a domestic scene which shows the father cooking in the kitchen, the mother coming home from work and their son sewing. What is the concept conveyed ?

            (1) Devision of labour among sexes

            (2) Work is worship

            (3) Removing gender bias

            (4) Dignity of labour

      

 

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